mercoledì 17 ottobre 2007

Modal Verbs in Legal English

Ex. 1 - Insert the right word in the sentences below.
Shall, will, must, may and can/cannot

1) I _____ probably call in at the office tomorrow.
2) The parties _____ not assign the benefit of this agreement.
3) Unfortunately this firm does not carry out that type of work. Therefore, we _____ help you.
4) The goods _____ be delivered on the agreed date.
5) _____ I have a word with you in private please?
6) The parties _____ in their discretion use an approved expert to carry out the tasks.
7) It is clear that the company _____ carry out this type of work to high standards.
8) That contract _____ be on my desk by 5pm today.
9) Our senior partner has indicated that we _____ in our discretion take further work from that organisation.
10) Someone ought to go to the bank today _____ I go or _____ you be going?


Ex. 2 Expressing obligation, possibility, necessity and duty
Choose the word or phrase from the list below which best completes each of the following sentences. The phrase in square brackets [...] will help you to decide. Choose from:
(1) shall be (2) cannot be (3) ought to (4) is entitled to (5) may (6) are bound to (7) have to be (8) need not be (9) are binding on (10) may be required (11) are not entitled to

Example: Husbands and wives ___may _____ now sue each other in contract or tort.
[It is possible] Answer: (5)

a) By the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 the parties to a contract _________always to limit their liability under the contract. [They do not always have the right]
b) Article 4 of the EEC Treaty provides that the functions of the Community ________ carried out by the Assembly, the Council, the Commission and the Court of Justice. [They must be]
c) In English law a valid contract _________ reduced to writing. [It is not necessary]
d) Under the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 husband and wife __________ give evidence against each other in criminal cases where necessary. [They must give evidence]
e) The government __________ protect British subjects from criminals. [It has a duty]
f) A woman who stops work in order to have a baby __________ maternity pay for a period of up to 18 weeks. [She has a right to maternity pay]
g) Under English law transfers of land __________made by deed. [They must be made by deed]
h) Ec regulations are directly applicable laws which ____________ all Members States. [They must be applicable and respected]
i) A person who commits murder below the age of 18 years __________ sentenced to life imprisonment. [Its is not possible]
j) A breath test ________________when a police officer stops a car and smells alcohol on the driver’s breath [the police officer can demand it]




Keys ex. 2
are not always entitled
shall be
need not be
are bound to
ought to
is entitled to
have to be
are binding on
cannot be
may be required

3 commenti:

immacolata ha detto...

1) I MAY probably call in at the office tomorrow.
2) The parties WILL not assign the benefit of this agreement.
3) Unfortunately this firm does not carry out that type of work. Therefore, we CANNOT help you.
4) The goods WILL be delivered on the agreed date.
5) SHALL I have a word with you in private please?
6) The parties SHOULD in their discretion use an approved expert to carry out the tasks.
7) It is clear that the company COULD carry out this type of work to high standards.
8) That contract WILL be on my desk by 5pm today.
9) Our senior partner has indicated that we SHOULD in our discretion take further work from that organisation.
10) Someone ought to go to the bank today WOULD I go or SHALL you be going?

immacolata ha detto...

I verbi modali in inglese non hanno alcuni modi e tempi (vengono sostituiti da altri verbi) e presentano delle particolari caratteristiche:

- Sono invariabili
- Non usano l’ausiliare nelle forme interrogativa, negativa e interrogativo-negativa
- I verbi che li seguono sono all’infinito senza il to (ad eccezione di ought)
- Non sono mai seguiti da un complemento oggetto
___________

CAN e COULD (POTERE)

CAN è usato

Per esprimere capacità/abilità (nel senso di essere capace di fare qualcosa o sapere come fare qualcosa):
He can swim but he can't play tennis.

Per esprimere permesso (nel senso di dare o ricevere un permesso):
Can I use your computer? (Nota che can è di solito meno formale di may)

COULD è usato

Per esprimere una capacità/abilità nel passato:
She could sing when she was young.

Per esprimere permesso (più formale rispetto a can):
Could I come to your party?
__________

MAY e MIGHT (POTERE)

MAY è usato

Per esprimere una eventualità:
Your luggage may weigh up to 20 kilos.

Per esprimere una probabilità futura:
I may go to Paris next week.

Per esprimere permesso (nel senso di dare o ricevere un permesso):
May I smoke here? (MAY è di solito più formale di CAN)

Per esprimere un augurio
May you win!

MIGHT è usato

Per esprimere un permesso molto formale.

May I smoke here?
Might I ask you a favour?

Per esprimere una probabilità (might indica una probabilità più remota di may).

There might be a shuttle waiting for you.
She may be asked to pay excess baggage.
She might have missed the flight.
______________________

WILL e WOULD (VOLERE)

WILL è usato

Per esprimere buona volontà, richieste o inviti:

I'll wait for you.
Will you come with me?

Per offrire qualcosa (di solito seguito da have + sostantivo)
Will you have a cup of coffee?

Per esprimere intenzione (specialmente alla prima persona):
I'll go shopping later on.

Per esprimere previsione:

- specifica: The match will start soon.
- senza riferimento temporale: Corrosion will ruin the structure of the building.
- abituale: The news will be broadcasted every two hours.

Nota che la forma contratta 'll è molto usata per will.

WOULD è usato

Per esprimere buona volontà, richieste o inviti (più formale rispetto a will):

Would you please do it for me?

Per esprimere probabilità:
I hear a noise. That would be the cat in the kitchen.

Per esprimere disponibilità a fare qualcosa (uso formale nel linguaggio commerciale)

We should be pleased if you would send us your latest catalogue.
___________________________

SHALL e SHOULD (Dovere)

SHALL si usa solo nella forma interrogativa per la prima persona singolare e plurale e ha le seguenti funzioni:

Fare proposte o dare suggerimenti
Shall we go? => Ce ne andiamo? (Dobbiamo andarcene?)

Offrirsi di fare qualcosa
Shall I turn off the radio? => Spengo la radio? (Vuoi che spenga la radio?)

Chiedere un parere o un consiglio in modo formale
Where shall I go? => Dove vado? (Dove devo andare?)

SHOULD si usa

Per dare suggerimenti, consigli e raccomandazioni

She should quit smoking => Dovrebbe smettere di fumare
You should go to the doctor => Dovresti andare dal dottore

Per fare un rimprovero

You shouldn’t behave like that => Non dovresti comportarti così

Per fare una supposizione
The match should start in one hour => La partita dovrebbe iniziare tra un’ora
Anno 1 fa
N.B. HO UTILIZZATO QUESTO SCHEMA PER LO SVOLGIMENTO DELL'ESERCIZIO è CORRETTO? LO SCHEMA INTENDO...

MLombardi ha detto...

Hi Immacolata,

here are some notes on Ex "Modal vbs in legal English"

For some sentences you can definitely have more than one answer. However, there are few which need to be corrected

- 5) SHALL (here May or Can would be better. Shall would have been appropriate if you were making a proposal) I have a word with you in private please?

- 6) Here it's not an advice or recommendation because of the "in their discretion". Therefore, "may or can" is more suitable

- 8) Here there is a clear request so definitely "must"

- 9) may
- 10) Shall I ( I am offering myself to do something)go or will you be going?