giovedì 30 marzo 2017

Legal English_Lesson_5UniTaranto

Introduction to Company law
  • Reading 1 pp 50-51 ex 1-3

Partnerships vs Companies or Corporations

Limited partnership with shares= società in accomandita per azioni
Limited Partnership = società in accomandita semplice
General Partnerhip = Società in nome collettivo

Società di Capitali= Società di Capitali
Limited by Shares (plc + Ltd)
Public Company Limited by Shares (plc) = Società per azioni
Private Company Limited by Shares (Ltd) = Società a responsabilità limitata.
Setting up a company in the UK - how easy/difficult is it?

It's quite difficult to find a clear correspondence with the Italian companies especially with srl ones.
Le quote della nostra srl non sono definibili shares ma quota(s), il titolare di quote sarà definito quotaholder. In riferimento al capitale della società non potrò parlare di share capital ma di corporate capital.

The situation improves when it comes to plc (or Ltd) : Il capitale sociale è definito share capital (oppure, con terminologia americana, capital stock), i soci azionisti sono shareholders (o, sempre nella versione U.S.,stockholders) e così i principali organi sociali, quali il consiglio di amministrazione – board of directors – e l’assemblea degli azionisti – shareholders’ meeting.

- board/panel of internal auditors/statutory auditors  = sort of Collegio Sindacale  
 managing director or C.E.O. (Chief Executive Officer) = amministratore delegato
-  incorporation process: 
  • ’atto costitutivo – memorandum of association/articles of incorporation 
  • lo statuto – articles of association/bylaws 
  • iscrizione al registro delle imprese locale – registration

Last but not least.... 
procedure concorsuali – insolvency proceedings 
tassa societaria - corporation tax

That means, when in Italian we refer to a private limited company o  private company limited by shares (Ltd.) we have to talk about:+
- shares quote sociali o di partecipazione
- shareholders soci 
- share capital - capitale sociale
mentre parlare di azioni, azionisti o capitale azionario riferendosi ad una Ltd. sarebbe un errore, per i motivi sopra esposti.
On the other hand, when we in Italian want to refer to a  public company (Plc.) we have to talk about:
shares azioni,
- shareholders azionisti e
- share capital - capitale azionario.
Company act 2006 è una completa codificazione della legge sulle società in Inghilterra e Galles 
  • Reading_3: Breach of Companies Act 2006 pp54-55 ex 12-15
  • Key terms_2: Public relations page 56 ex 20
  • Text analysis: Reading a statute page 57 ex 21-23

Self Study
  • Listening 1 + Listening 2  highly suggested
  • Language Focus pag 59 ex 1-3
  •  Listening 2  Ref section 172 Company Act 2006

Extra exercises_company law  page 328 ex 2; page 330 ex 2; pp 333-334 ex 1,2;page 337 ex 1; pp 339-341 ex 1, 2 Toles foundation practice page 345 ex 1, 2
EXTRA: If you like to investigate more the area of company law
Review of Italian and UKCompany Law.  A joint study by. Consiglio Nazionale dei Dottori Commercialisti e degli Esperti Contabili.

giovedì 16 marzo 2017

Legal English_lesson_4_UniTaranto

Criminal Law - Introduction

The Central Criminal Court in the Uk "The old Bailey"

Reading 1 pp 39-40 ex 3-5 Match the definition with the crimes

1.      armed robbery
a  killing somebody through an act or omission
2.        arson
b  deceiving somebody out of money or property
3.      assault
c  creating a false document
4.      battery
d  using a weapon to take money or property by force or direct threat of violence
5.      bribery
e  violence or abuse against a member of the offender's own household (e.g. wife/husband and children)
6.      burglary
 intentionally burning a building
7.      domestic violence
 buying and selling illegal narcotics
8.      drug trafficking
h  operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of alcohol
9.      drunk driving
i  entering a building with intent to commit a crime
10.  embezzlement
 striking a person with intent to harm
11.  extortion 
k  attempting to physically attack a person.
12.  forgery
l  giving money etc. to influence a public official
13.  fraud
m  stealing from an employer
14.  homicide 
n  obtaining money or property through indirect threats or intimidation 

From the Gazzetta del Mezzogiorno:

Magistrate reprimanded over pharmacist who committed suicide

Grammar: Passive constructions
Key terms_1: punishments
Reading 2 White-collar crime page 43-44 ex ex 19-21
Law in Practice
Language Use 3: giving advice
Language Focus

Self study
Listening 1 - 4 strongly suggested 

giovedì 9 marzo 2017

Legal English_lesson_3_UniTaranto

Lesson 3 10th March 

Unit 3: Tort Law  Reading 1_ pp28-29 ex 1-5; 

From Tort Law
•civil wrong
•contractual relations
•injured party
•fraudulent misrepresentation
•medical expenses
•monetary damages

Terminology: Explain these terms in your own words. Use expressions such as: this is the word for../This is the person who …/This is what you do when ..
  • damages vs damage
  • assignor vs assignee
  • the non-braching party vs the breaching party
  • specific performance
  • restitution
  • the injured party 
  • remedy

Damages: risarcimento danni, indennizzo, risarcimento

Different types of damages:
  • substantial damages
  • punitive (or exemplary) damages
  • liquidated damages

From the film Erin Brockovich 
What kind of damages are being awarded here? 

Self Study: Consolidate your "legal English" through news articles Look up on the Guardian or the BBC news  to find news articles dealing with:
- Punitive damages / Exemplary damages 
- Nominal damages 
- Substantial damages 

Nel vs articolo estrapolate parole chiavi legate all'area giuridica e pubblicate il lavoro
Enjoy it!
Take this article as an example "nominal damages of £1" What could we learn from reading it?

domenica 5 marzo 2017

English for Professionals_7

Lesson 7 [4th March 15:30-19:30]

Si conclude, con questo incontro, un percorso di studio sulla lingua inglese per scopi specifici che ha visto impegnati avvocati e agenti di commercio desiderosi di mettersi al passo con i tempi. Siamo consapevoli che si tratta solo di un primo step e che tanto ancora bisogna aggiungere ma intanto siamo partiti ...!  

 Confusing words in legal English
Vocabulary test
Prepositions from lesson 6
Students will be asked to deal with a case study
They have also been asked to write a legal opinion about a legal matter
Conclusions and feedback about the course

     How to deal with a case study: 
  •      The facts of the case 
  •      Who are the parties?
  •      What do you know about each of them?
  •      What was the agreement? 
  •      What went wrong?
  •      What does each side want?

Relevant legal documents
     Text 1 is an authentic extract from the UK Sale of Goods act 1979
Text 2 is a more detailed explanation of how to calculate damages for breach of warranty.
Text 3 refers to a precedent 

giovedì 2 marzo 2017

Legal English_lesson_2_UniTaranto

Lesson 2

Language from reading 1
  • Adverb+adjective: intellectually stimulating
  • Verb+preposition: to lead to something; to decide on something; to get involved with something
  • Preposition+noun: in addition (to)
  • Verb+noun: to take a course/subject;to run a partnership; to offer a course; to offer assistance; to hire new recruits
  • Verb+verb: to go on to become something
  • Adjective+noun: future career; local community; day-to-day work; a good command (of English)
  • Noun+noun: work experience

Language from Reading 2:
From contract law: formation, interpretation, performance and enforcement of contracts, offer and acceptance, consideration.
From Tort Law: liability for intentional and negligently caused injures to person and property; strict liability; vicarious liability; ultra-hazardous activities; products liability; nuisance; invasion of privacy; defamation; damages; losses.
From Ciminal Law: crime against persons, property and public administration; the law of homicide
From Evidence: relevancy, hearsay, impeachment, cross-examination.
From Criminal Procedure: regulation of law enforcement, investigation of crimes, search and seizure, electronic surveillance, entrapment,
From Constitutional Law: judicial function, distribution under the constitution, immunities under the constitution.
From legal research & writing: to acquaint students with …; analyze judicial opinions; legal citation; techniques of writing memoranda and briefs.
What to study - core (compulsory) subjects and optional subjects:
  • criminal law, contract law, land law, equity and trusts, administrative law and constitutional law, family law, employment law and housing law,company law, commercial law, litigation and arbitration.
Where to work:
  • Partnership [general partnership (società in nome collettivo) limited partnership (società in accomandita)]
  • Large law practice/firm
  • Commercial practice
  • Sole practitioner
  • Law clinic
Legal writing, legal research, legal practice, legal assistance, legal community,
Law degree programme, law student, law practice, law clinic, law firm

Awkward words
- equity and trusts = affidamento fiduciario - Leggi "L'utilizzo del trust in Italia"
- Podcast - What is equity?  + Material accompanyng the podcast
- equity vs common law 

Introduction to Contract Law

consideration (nella common law si tratta di un interesse, un vantaggio, un beneficio ricevuto da una parte; ovvero un sacrificio, una perdita concessa, subita o sopportata dall'altra parte.)
From "English for Law"  Cornerlsen: Contract Law Consideration
counter offer
essential terms
assignor (who transfers sth - cedente)  vs assignee (who is entrusted with sth cessionario/assegnatario)
specific performance
breaching party vs non-breaching party/injured party 
binding contract vs non-binding 

- An offer
Accept, make, reject, withdraw, increase, submit, receive, consider
- A contract
Breach/form/negotiate/perform/draw up/draft/sign a contract
- Damages
Accept/award/claim/win/receive/seek/pay damages
- A lawsuit
File/bring (fare causa)/launch (avviare)/persue/win/lose

What actions do they carry out
A party
Breaches a contract/performs a contract
The parties
Negotiate an offer/negotiate a contract/form a contract
The court
Enforces a contract/awards damages
A lawyer
Files a lawsuit/negotiates an offer/negotiates a contract/accepts an offer

Focus on: enforce/enforceable (esecutivo)
To enforce: verbo transitivo
1. (impose) imporre [rule, silence, discipline];
fare rispettare, applicare [law, court order];
fare valere [legal rights];
esigere [payment];
fare rispettare [contract]
Enforceable (esempio) 

2. For that reason, the parties consent that such covenants shall be enforceable in a court of equity by temporary or permanent injunction, restraining order or a decree of specific performance. The remedies provided above shall be cumulative and not exclusive and are in addition to any other remedies, which either party may have under this Agreement or applicable law.

Per tale motivo, le parti acconsentono/convengono che tali clausole debbano essere fatte valere in una corte di equità con ingiunzione (esecutiva) permanente o temporanea, ordine restrittivo o atto specifico. Le azioni (giudiziarie) elencate sopra devono essere cumulative e non esclusive e si intendono in aggiunta alle azioni che una delle due parti può esperire in base al presente accordo(ovvero) applicabili per legge.

Self Study 
  • Reading 2 p. 20 ex 9-10
  • Listening 2 p. 21 ex 19-20
  • Reading 3 p. 22 ex 22-24
  • Modal verbs 
  • Focus on language page 27