mercoledì 24 aprile 2013


Revision reading 3-5 pp 88-90

Collocations from the letter pag 90
  • strictly private and confidential
  • fully entitled
  • shortly forthcoming
  • strenuously denies
  • recently informed
  • confidential information
  • previous criticism
  • a positive asset
  • a substantial increase
  • constructive dismissal (licenziamento senza giusta causa)
  • excellent prospects
  • exemplary damages
  • alternative means
  • satisfactory proposals
Listening 2 Lawyer-client interview pp 91-92 ex 29-32
Students act out the interview

Language Focus page 93 ex 1-5


Unit 9 - Reading 1: International Law pp 94-96 ex 2-5

  1. Parties to a treaty
  2. ....the treaty is in force
  3. ....a signatory to a convention
  4. Under the Convention on the Rights of the Child
  5. ...are entitled to special protection
  6. International laws apply to the citizens
  7. ...regulations are binding on Partner States

Intergovernmental organizations

No significant differences:
Conventions – Vienna Convention (full text)
  • agreemments
  • charters
  • framework conventions deal with very broad areas

United Nations 

martedì 23 aprile 2013



  •  Key terms: page 77 ex 16; page 79 ex 23
  •  Listening1 7.1 Property Law Presentation  ex. 11, 12
  • Listening 2  page 78 ex 19-21
  • Reading 3: Draft tenancy agreement page 80 ex 25
  • Language focus page 82 ex 1-4
Unit 8 _ Litigation and Arbitration

Focus on language: How do you say that … in Italian?
  • Disputing parties
  • Litigation
  • Settlement
  • Hearing
  • Pleading
  • Out –of-court settlement
  • Binding decision
  • Legal fees
  • To settle a dispute
  • To reach a settlement
  • To enforce/deliver judgment
  • To save money on
  • To threaten to sue
  • To face court proceedings/litigation costs
  • To deny accusations
  • To pursue a claim
  • In connection with
Examples of disputes:• Dispute over people's behaviour may involve conflict between neighbours over anti-social behaviour (loud parties or verbal abuse)
• Business disputes can involve different interpretation of the terms of a contract, or questions over whether a contract has been breached, and what remedies/damages are appropriate.
• Planning disputes include situations where, for example, a property owner plans to construct a new building, or improve an existing building. (ie planning permissions)
• Environmental disputes include disputes over resources and questions over who has the right to exploit those resources, and at what cost to the environment. 

    ADR: Alternative Dispute Resolution:
    • negotiation: participation is voluntary and there is no third party who facilitates the resolution process or imposes a resolution
    • arbitration:participation is typically voluntary, and there is a third party who, as a private judge, imposes a resolution. Arbitrations often occur because parties to contracts agree that any future dispute concerning the agreement will be resolved by arbitration.
    • mediation:there is a third party, a mediator, who facilitates the resolution process (and may even suggest a resolution, typically known as a "mediator's proposal"), but does not impose a resolution on the parties

      Reading 2 
      letter of invitationpp 85-86 ex 7 - ref to ELSA (European Law Students' Association 
    • Future forms: present continuous vs will vs going to
    Listening 1 Question and answer session
    pag 87 ex 10-12peanut kernel case
    Reading 3 Avoiding litigation page 88 ex 14-16
    Reading 4 Cost of litigation page 89 ex 18-21

    No lesson on Friday

    La lezione di inglese prevista per venerdi 26 aprile è  stata cancellata - il calendario lezioni proseguirà nella settimana successiva.

    mercoledì 17 aprile 2013


    From legal English to plain English: Commercial agency clauses
    Language Focus revision

    Unit 7: Real property law
    Real property law
    pp. 72-73 ex 1-3
    Instruments and people in real property law

    • lease= (contratto di locazione) o meglio diritto di godere di un immobile per un certo tempo.
    • licence = licenza d'uso
    • deed = atto (notarile)
    • tenant
    • landlord
    • heir
    • grantor = concessore
    • grantee = beneficiario
    • licencee

    Language use: Forming adjectives with negative prefixes pag. 74 ex 5,6

    Reading 2: Real Property investment law ex 7, 9

    Language notes:
    I termini "freehold" e “leasehold” sono entrambi termini di matrice feudale, che rappresentano due sistemi tipici per possedere una proprietà in UK .

    Il primo possiamo renderlo con “proprietà fondiaria assoluta/libera” Chi acquista una “freehold” proprietà diventa “freeholder” e acquisisce il massimo dei poteri possibili su quell’immobile e senza alcun limite di tempo;

    Rientrano nell'istituto di freehold:
    • Fee simple = diritto assoluto sulla proprietà 
    • fee tail = Il beneficiario ha un diritto limitato in quanto non può vendere il bene ma solo tramandarlo ai suoi eredi; la proprietà ha un vincolo inalienabile
    • life estate = il bene è di proprietà del beneficiario solo per la durata della sua vita 
    • Estate pur (pour) autre vie = simile al life estate ma il bene è di proprietà del beneficiario per la durata della vita di una terza persona. For example, if Bob is given use of the family house for as long as his mother lives, he has possession of the house pur autre vie

    Leasehold, pur traducendosi con proprietà in affitto, si riferisce alla locazione del suolo. Il termine fa riferimento ad un rapporto giuridico in base al quale un soggetto detto lessor(locatore) conferisce al lessee (locatario) un diritto esclusivo di proprietà sull’immobile per un periodo di tempo determinato, di solito per una consideration detta ground rent . Deve essere sottolineato che il lease si differenzia profondamente dalla locazione così come intesa nei sistemi civilistici, soprattutto per il fatto che il titolare del lease è titolare di un diritto di natura reale sull’immobile, dove invece il locatario dei sistemi di civil law può vantare soltanto un diritto di credito nei confronti del locatore. Quando si acquista una proprietà con leasehold bisogna prestare attenzione alle covenants, ossia le obbligazioni alle quali il lessee è tenuto ad osservare, la cui presenza rappresenta una delle particolarità più difficile da accettare per chi è abituato al sistema civilistico.

    - Dal Il sole 24 ore "A Londra la proprietà è del re"

    Act of conveyance: (atto di cessione) transfer of title in land from one person to another

    Goods and chattels: beni ed effetti
    title interest: diritto nel titolo, interest in the real property

    Lease/let/rent vb. They are used interchangeably – More common:
    To lease/let property to somebody and rent property from somebody
    Lease= n. the agreement
    Rent= n. the money to be paid
    inheritable = passed on to heirs


    pros & cons of leasehold

    Buy to let investment 

    Statute of frauds
    The statute of frauds del 1677 fu la prima legge nel sistema inglese a prevedere la forma scritta ad probationem, ossia la possibilità di far valere in giudizio un contratto che è e rimane valido di per sé. Successivamente il Law of Property Act 1925 ritenne obbligatoria la forma scritta ad probationem solo per i contratti aventi per oggetto la proprietà o altri diritti reali su beni terrieri e il Law Reform (Enforcement of Contracts) Act 1954 stabilì che detta forma fosse da ritenersi necessaria per i contratti di garanzia.[read more..]Traditionally, the statute of frauds requires a writing signed by the party against whom enforcement is sought in the following circumstances:
    • Contracts in consideration of marriage. 
    • Contracts which cannot be performed within one year. 
    • Contracts for the transfer of an interest in land. Contracts by the executor of a will to pay a debt of the estate with their own money. 
    • Contracts for the sale of goods above a certain value. 
    • Contracts in which one party becomes a surety (garanzia acts as guarantor) for another party's debt or other obligation.

    Law students often remember these circumstances by the mnemonic "MYLEGS" (marriage, year, land, executor, goods, surety). It is important to note that in the United States, each State; in Canada, each province; and in Australia each State has its own variation on the statute of frauds, which may differ significantly from the traditional list. 

    Key terms: page 77 ex 16; page 79 ex 23
    Preparare un glossario specifico per "real property law"
    ex: escrow (account/agreement) = deposito in garanzia 

    Homework Listening1 7.1 Property Law Presentation  ex. 11, 12
    Listening 2  page 78 ex 19-21
    Reading 3: Draft tenancy agreement page 80 ex 25
    Language focus page 82 ex 1-4


    05 Aprile 2013

    Homework revision

    • Text analysis: letter of application pp63-65
    • Reading_2 Commercial Law internship 
    • Reading_3 Role of Commercial agents
    • Reading_4 Commercial agency contract
    • Language Focus page 71 

    martedì 2 aprile 2013

    Words in the news

    Sul diritto di proprietà intellettuale some useful vocabulary .. for you to work on..

      The Guardian,

    Novartis denied cancer drug patent in landmark Indian case

    Supreme court ruling paves way for generic companies to make cheap copies of Glivec in the developing world
    Indian woman buys medicine
    Healthcare activists say the ruling against Novartis ensures poor people will be able to access to cheap versions of cancer medicines. Photograph: Rajesh Kumar Singh/AP
    The Indian supreme court has refused to allow one of the world's leading pharmaceutical companies to patent a new version of a cancer drug, a decision campaigners hailed as a major step forward in enabling poor people to access medicines in the developing world.
    Novartis lost a six-year legal battle after the court ruled that small changes and improvements to the drug Glivec did not amount to innovation deserving of a patent. The ruling opens the way for generic companies in India to manufacture and sell cheap copies of the drug in the developing world and has implications for HIV and other modern drugs too.
    Campaigners were jubilant. A ruling in Novartis's favour would have reduced poor people's access to the drug, said Jennifer Cohn, of Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF). "The fact that India says patents are to reward innovation as opposed to small changes does stay true to the concept of what a patent should be."
    But Novartis said the decision "discourages future innovation in India". Ranjit Shahani, the firm's vice-chairman and managing director in India, said the ruling was "a setback for patients that will hinder medical progress for diseases without effective treatment options".
    He said the Swiss company will be cautious about investing in India, especially over introducing new drugs, and seek patent protection before launching any new products. It will continue to refrain from research and development activities in the country. "The intellectual property ecosystem in India is not very encouraging," Shahani told reporters in Mumbai after the ruling.
    Glivec is an important drug in the treatment of myeloid leukaemia and has transformed prospects for patients in rich countries. It is a targeted, biological therapy that blocks cancer growth in patients with a particular gene mutation. But like all targeted therapies, it is very expensive, costing more than £1,700 a month.
    Historically India only had limited patent protection on drugs and generic companies in the country made versions of many medicines. It was only when Indian firms began to make cheap copies of HIV drugs that it became possible more than a decade ago to contemplate the treatment of millions of people in impoverished countries of Africa, where the Aids epidemic was at its worst.
    But in 2005, India became compliant with World Trade Organisation rules on intellectual property and now grants patents on innovative new drugs. Patents usually run for 20 years or more from the date they are taken out.
    Glivec was already on the market, however, so Novartis decided to seek a patent on a slightly altered version, potentially giving it a longer period of market exclusivity. The supreme court has thrown out the application, saying the new drug is not significantly different from the old version, and ordered Novartis to pay costs.
    At stake in the legal battle was not just the right of generic companies to make cheap drugs for India once original patents expire but also access to newer drugs for poorer countries in much of Africa and Asia. India has long been known as the pharmacy of the developing world.
    Dr Unni Karunakara, the president of MSF, said: "The supreme court's decision now makes patents on the medicines that we desperately need less likely. This marks the strongest possible signal to Novartis and other multinational pharmaceutical companies that they should stop seeking to attack the Indian patent law."
    In a statement, the Cancer Patients Aid Association in India (CPAA), which had opposed the patent application, said: "We are very happy that the court has recognised the right of patients to access affordable medicines over profits for big pharmaceutical companies through patents. Our access to affordable treatment will not be possible if the medicines are patented. It is a huge victory for human rights."
    The case hinged on the interpretation of section 3(d) of the Indian Patents Act, which does not allow patents of new versions of known drug molecules, unless they make the medicine significantly more effective than before.
    Novartis argued that better physicochemical qualities, such as shape of the molecule, stability, hygroscopicity and solubility, would satisfy the test of enhanced efficacy.
    But the court decided that the changes were simply an attempt at "evergreening" – refreshing the drug so that a new patent would be granted – which is common practice in Europe and North America.
    Anand Grover, senior counsel and director of Lawyers Collective HIV/Aids Unit, who represented the CPAA in the courts, said: "The supreme court's interpretation of section 3(d) keeps it intact. It is alive and kicking. It gives life to parliament's intent of facilitating access to medicines and of incentivising only genuine research.
    "By refusing patent monopolies on minor changes to known molecules, this judgment will facilitate early entry of generic medicines into the market for other medicines and diseases too. The impact will be felt not only in India, but also across the developing world."
    The ruling is thought likely to affect drugs belonging to several other companies. Pfizer's cancer drug Sutent and Roche's hepatitis C treatment Pegasys lost their patented status in India last year. They may now find it harder to obtain a patent on new versions.
    In an interview with before the ruling, Novartis threatened to stop supplying India with new medicines if it did not get the patent protection it believes its investment and innovation deserve. "If the situation stays as now, all improvements on an original compound are not protectable and such drugs would probably not be rolled out in India," Paul Herrling, who headed the company's legal battle in India, told the Financial Times. "Why would we?"