giovedì 22 marzo 2018


Revision Key terms

  • trial /trail/
  • lawsuit
  • out of court settlement
  • claimant/plaintiff
  • defendant
  • find for vs find against
  • affirm vs reverse a judgement
  • proximate cause
  • wilful harm
  • negligence 
  • negligent
  • intentional harm 
  • gross negligence

Frivolous lawsuits  Listening 1 page 32

Reading 4 Letter threatening legal action page 36

Language focus page 38

Reading 1 pp 39-40 ex 3-5 Match the definition with the crimes

1.      armed robbery
a  killing somebody through an act or omission
2.        arson
b  deceiving somebody out of money or property
3.      assault
c  creating a false document
4.      battery
d  using a weapon to take money or property by force or direct threat of violence
5.      bribery
e  violence or abuse against a member of the offender's own household (e.g. wife/husband and children)
6.      burglary
 intentionally burning a building
7.      domestic violence
 buying and selling illegal narcotics
8.      drug trafficking
h  operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of alcohol
9.      drunk driving
i  entering a building with intent to commit a crime
10.  embezzlement
 striking a person with intent to harm
11.  extortion 
k  attempting to physically attack a person.
12.  forgery
l  giving money etc. to influence a public official
13.  fraud
m  stealing from an employer
14.  homicide 
n  obtaining money or property through indirect threats or intimidation 

Self study

Grammar: Passive constructions
Key terms_1: punishments
Reading 2 White-collar crime page 43-44 ex ex 19-21
Law in Practice
Language Use 3: giving advice
Language Focus

Listening 1 - 4 strongly suggested 

giovedì 8 marzo 2018

Lesson 3_2018

Unit 3: Tort Law  Reading 1_ pp28-29 ex 1-5; 

From Tort Law
•civil wrong
•contractual relations
•injured party
•fraudulent misrepresentation
•medical expenses
•monetary damages

Terminology: Explain these terms in your own words. Use expressions such as: this is the word for../This is the person who …/This is what you do when ..
  • damages vs damage
  • assignor vs assignee
  • the non-braching party vs the breaching party
  • specific performance
  • restitution
  • the injured party 
  • remedy

Damages: risarcimento danni, indennizzo, risarcimento

Different types of damages:
  • substantial damages
  • punitive (or exemplary) damages
  • liquidated damages

From the film Erin Brockovich 
What kind of damages are being awarded here? 

Self Study: Consolidate your "legal English" through news articles Look up on the Guardian or the BBC news  to find news articles dealing with:
- Punitive damages / Exemplary damages 
- Nominal damages 
- Substantial damages 

Nel vs articolo estrapolate parole chiavi legate all'area giuridica e pubblicate il lavoro
Enjoy it!
Take this article as an example "nominal damages of £1" What could we learn from reading it?

giovedì 1 marzo 2018


Vocabulary Revision

  • performance and enforcement of contracts
  • offer - acceptance - consideration
  • breach of contract
  • liability
  • strict liability 
  • vicariuos liability
  • nuisance
  • damages vs  damage 

damage: means “loss or injury to a person or property”. It is an uncountable singular noun and has no plural form.
E.g.: The cost of the damage to the US caused by Hurricane Ike was estimated at USD 18 billion.
Other words you could use instead of damageloss, injury
Damages means “money claimed by, or ordered to be paid to, a person as compensation for loss or injury”. It is an uncountable plural noun and has no singular form.
E.g.: The Claimant wishes to sue Acme for damages as a result of a loss sustained by the Claimant after Acme’s failure to perform its obligations.
Other words you could use instead of damagescompensation, satisfaction

  • evidence
  • hearsay
  • law enforcement
  • under the constitution

Language from reading 1
  • Adverb+adjective: intellectually stimulating
  • Verb+preposition: to lead to something; to decide on something; to get involved with something
  • Preposition+noun: in addition (to)
  • Verb+noun: to take a course/subject;to run a partnership; to offer a course; to offer assistance; to hire new recruits
  • Verb+verb: to go on to become something
  • Adjective+noun: future career; local community; day-to-day work; a good command (of English)
  • Noun+noun: work experience

Language from Reading 2:
From contract law: formation, interpretation, performance and enforcement of contracts, offer and acceptance, consideration.
From Tort Law: liability for intentional and negligently caused injures to person and property; strict liability; vicarious liability; ultra-hazardous activities; products liability; nuisance; invasion of privacy; defamation; damages; losses.
From Ciminal Law: crime against persons, property and public administration; the law of homicide
From Evidence: relevancy, hearsay, impeachment, cross-examination.
From Criminal Procedure: regulation of law enforcement, investigation of crimes, search and seizure, electronic surveillance, entrapment,
From Constitutional Law: judicial function, distribution under the constitution, immunities under the constitution.
From legal research & writing: to acquaint students with …; analyze judicial opinions; legal citation; techniques of writing memoranda and briefs.
What to study - core (compulsory) subjects and optional subjects:
  • criminal law, contract law, land law, equity and trusts, administrative law and constitutional law, family law, employment law and housing law,company law, commercial law, litigation and arbitration.
Where to work:
  • Partnership [general partnership (società in nome collettivo) limited partnership (società in accomandita)]
  • Large law practice/firm
  • Commercial practice
  • Sole practitioner
  • Law clinic
Legal writing, legal research, legal practice, legal assistance, legal community,
Law degree programme, law student, law practice, law clinic, law firm

Awkward words
- equity and trusts = affidamento fiduciario - Leggi "L'utilizzo del trust in Italia"
- Podcast - What is equity?  + Material accompanyng the podcast
- equity vs common law 
Revision Unit 1 A career in Law 

Introduction to Contract Law: 
consideration (nella common law si tratta di un interesse, un vantaggio, un beneficio ricevuto da una parte; ovvero un sacrificio, una perdita concessa, subita o sopportata dall'altra parte.)
From "English for Law"  Cornerlsen: Contract Law Consideration
counter offer
essential terms
assignor (who transfers sth - cedente)  vs assignee (who is entrusted with sth cessionario/assegnatario)
specific performance
breaching party vs non-breaching party/injured party 
binding contract vs non-binding 

- An offer
Accept, make, reject, withdraw, increase, submit, receive, consider
- A contract
Breach/form/negotiate/perform/draw up/draft/sign a contract
- Damages
Accept/award/claim/win/receive/seek/pay damages
- A lawsuit
File/bring (fare causa)/launch (avviare)/persue/win/lose

What actions do they carry out
A party
Breaches a contract/performs a contract
The parties
Negotiate an offer/negotiate a contract/form a contract
The court
Enforces a contract/awards damages
A lawyer
Files a lawsuit/negotiates an offer/negotiates a contract/accepts an offer

Focus on: enforce/enforceable (esecutivo)
To enforce: verbo transitivo
1. (impose) imporre [rule, silence, discipline];
fare rispettare, applicare [law, court order];
fare valere [legal rights];
esigere [payment];
fare rispettare [contract]
Enforceable (esempio) 

2. For that reason, the parties consent that such covenants shall be enforceable in a court of equity by temporary or permanent injunction, restraining order or a decree of specific performance. The remedies provided above shall be cumulative and not exclusive and are in addition to any other remedies, which either party may have under this Agreement or applicable law.

Per tale motivo, le parti acconsentono/convengono che tali clausole debbano essere fatte valere in una corte di equità con ingiunzione (esecutiva) permanente o temporanea, ordine restrittivo o atto specifico. Le azioni (giudiziarie) elencate sopra devono essere cumulative e non esclusive e si intendono in aggiunta alle azioni che una delle due parti può esperire in base al presente accordo(ovvero) applicabili per legge.

Self Study 
  • Reading 2 p. 20 ex 9-10
  • Listening 2 p. 21 ex 19-20
  • Reading 3 p. 22 ex 22-24
  • Modal verbs 
  • Focus on language page 27

domenica 11 febbraio 2018


Friday 23rd February at 9:00 am 

Get to know my students:  Why are you studying law?? What made you choose this course of study?   You are invited to leave your answer in the comment area..

 Le caratteristiche dell'inglese legale Presentation given 

- Programma a.a. 2017-2018
- Entry Test
Text book unit 1 and unit 2 

Please find above a copy of unit 1/2 from the textbook - You will need to study all the reading parts + exercises
Reading 1
Reading 2
Grammar: Comparative and superlative forms
Reading 3
Language Focus

giovedì 18 maggio 2017

Legal English_Lesson_11UniTaranto

Revision Reading 4 (Unit 9) 

How to read a decision of the Supreme Court

  • cer•ti•o•ra•ri  n. [Law.]

Law a writ issuing from a superior court calling up the record of a proceeding in an inferior court for review. Also called writ of certiorari.
Etymology:  15th Century: from legal Latin: to be informed

  • Microsoft CORP. v. AT&T CORP 
  • to file an infringement suit
  • to charge Microsoft with liability for 
  • to be liable under s.271(f)
  • to be entitled to 
  • damages for breaches of its patent
  • to be liable for sth
  • the  court's hearing
  • exception to the general rule
  • the reasoning behind
  • under what circumstances 

How cases are referenced:

  • in Common Law: by name "Dononghue vs Stevenson"
  • in Civil Law: by number "Decision n. 2014-446 QPC  du 20 Janvier 2015"

Unit 10 - Reading 1 Comparative Law pp 106-107 ex 1-3

List of legal systems

• Civil Law

• Common Law

• Religious Law (Muslim Law, Hindu Law, Jewish Law)

• Chinese Law

• Socialist Law

Some video lessons on the difference between common law and civil law

Reading 2 pp107-108 ex 4-6

Self Study
Reading 3 Asset protection pp 112-113 ex 25-28

Text analysis: Discourse markers for text cohesion pag 112 ex 28

giovedì 4 maggio 2017

Legal English_Lesson_9UniTaranto

 International Law
Reading 1: International Law pp 94-96 ex 2-5
Reading 2 ex 7-9

newsworthy reports: 

  1. Parties to a treaty
  2. ....the treaty is in force
  3. ....a signatory to a convention
  4. Under the Convention on the Rights of the Child
  5. ...are entitled to special protection
  6. International laws apply to the citizens
  7. ...regulations are binding on Partner States

Intergovernmental organizations

No significant differences:
Conventions – Vienna Convention 
  • agreemments
  • charters
  • framework conventions deal with very broad areas

United Nations 

Listening 9.1
Text analysis audio transcript 9.1 pag 136

Collocations - phrasal verbs - idiomatic expressions - collocations
  •  to have a considerable impact on (sth/so)
  • to have a considerable impact in (place)
  • to be seen in the context of
  • a growing concern
  • to rely on
  • to accuse someone over/of sth
  • to go up to
  • to call in
  • to have right to ..
  • the right of someone to ....
  • to take actions against ..
  • social dumping
  • wage dumping
  • collective bargaining
  • fair working conditions
  • regardless of ...

Self study

List of legal systems 
• Civil Law 
• Common Law 
• Religious Law (Muslim Law, Hindu Law, Jewish Law) 
• Chinese Law 
• Socialist Law

Reading 3 pp 100 ex 17-20
Language focus: page 105 ex 1-3

giovedì 27 aprile 2017

Legal English_Lesson_8UniTaranto

Reading 1 Litigation and Arbitration pp 84-84 ex 2,3

Focus on language: How do you say that … in Italian?
  • Disputing parties
  • Litigation
  • Settlement
  • Hearing
  • Pleading: formal statement served by each party to a lawsuit to one another, and containing their respective positions (allegations, claims, defences, denies)
  • Out –of-court settlement
  • Binding decision
  • Legal fees
  • To settle a dispute
  • To reach a settlement
  • To enforce/deliver judgment
  • To save money on
  • To threaten to sue
  • To face court proceedings/litigation costs
  • To deny accusations
  • To pursue a claim
  • In connection with
Examples of disputes:• Dispute over people's behaviour may involve conflict between neighbours over anti-social behaviour (loud parties or verbal abuse)
• Business disputes can involve different interpretation of the terms of a contract, or questions over whether a contract has been breached, and what remedies/damages are appropriate.
• Planning disputes include situations where, for example, a property owner plans to construct a new building, or improve an existing building. (ie planning permissions)
• Environmental disputes include disputes over resources and questions over who has the right to exploit those resources, and at what cost to the environment. 
    ADR: Alternative Dispute Resolution:
    • negotiation: participation is voluntary and there is no third party who facilitates the resolution process or imposes a resolution
    • arbitration:participation is typically voluntary, and there is a third party who, as a private judge, imposes a resolution. Arbitrations often occur because parties to contracts agree that any future dispute concerning the agreement will be resolved by arbitration.
    • mediation:there is a third party, a mediator, who facilitates the resolution process (and may even suggest a resolution, typically known as a "mediator's proposal"), but does not impose a resolution on the parties

    Reading 2 letter of invitation pp 85-86 ex 7 - ref to ELSA (European Law Students' association 
    Grammar Practice:
    Reading 3 Avoiding litigation page 88 ex 14-16
    Reading 4 Cost of litigation page 89 ex 18-21
    Reading 5 Letter before action pp 89-91 ex 22-28
    • strictly private and confidential
    • fully entitled
    • shortly forthcoming
    • strenuously denies
    • recently informed
    • confidential information
    • previous criticism
    • a positive asset
    • a substantial increase
    • constructive dismissal (licenziamento senza giusta causa)
    • excellent prospects
    • exemplary damages
    • alternative means
    • satisfactory proposals

    Self Study
    Listening 1 Question and answer session
    pag 87 ex 10-12 peanut kernel case
    Listening 2 Lawyer-client interview pp 91-91 ex 29-32
    Language Focus page 93

    giovedì 20 aprile 2017

    Legal English_Lesson_7UniTaranto

    Unit 7: Real property law
    pp. 72-73 ex 1-3 Instruments and people in real property law

    • lease= (contratto di locazione) o meglio diritto di godere di un immobile per un certo tempo.
    • licence = licenza d'uso
    • deed = atto (notarile)
    • tenant
    • landlord
    • heir
    • grantor = concessore
    • grantee = beneficiario
    • licencee
    • Language use: Forming adjectives with negative prefixes pag. 74 ex 5,6
      Reading 2: Real Property investment law ex 7, 9
      Key terms 2: Buying real property ex 16

      Language notes:
      I termini "freehold" e “leasehold” sono entrambi termini di matrice feudale, che rappresentano due sistemi tipici per possedere una proprietà in UK .

      Il primo possiamo renderlo con “proprietà fondiaria assoluta/libera” Chi acquista una “freehold” proprietà diventa “freeholder” e acquisisce il massimo dei poteri possibili su quell’immobile e senza alcun limite di tempo;

      Rientrano nell'istituto di freehold:
      • Fee simple = diritto assoluto sulla proprietà 
      • fee tail = Il beneficiario ha un diritto limitato in quanto non può vendere il bene ma solo tramandarlo ai suoi eredi; la proprietà ha un vincolo inalienabile
      • life estate = il bene è di proprietà del beneficiario solo per la durata della sua vita 
      • Estate pur (pour) autre vie = simile al life estate ma il bene è di proprietà del beneficiario per la durata della vita di una terza persona. For example, if Bob is given use of the family house for as long as his mother lives, he has possession of the house pur autre vie

      Leasehold, pur traducendosi con proprietà in affitto, si riferisce alla locazione del suolo. Il termine fa riferimento ad un rapporto giuridico in base al quale un soggetto detto lessor(locatore) conferisce al lessee (locatario) un diritto esclusivo di proprietà sull’immobile per un periodo di tempo determinato, di solito per una consideration detta ground rent . Deve essere sottolineato che il lease si differenzia profondamente dalla locazione così come intesa nei sistemi civilistici, soprattutto per il fatto che il titolare del lease è titolare di un diritto di natura reale sull’immobile, dove invece il locatario dei sistemi di civil law può vantare soltanto un diritto di credito nei confronti del locatore. Quando si acquista una proprietà con leasehold bisogna prestare attenzione alle covenants, ossia le obbligazioni alle quali il lessee è tenuto ad osservare, la cui presenza rappresenta una delle particolarità più difficile da accettare per chi è abituato al sistema civilistico.

    • Dal Il sole 24 ore "A Londra la proprietà è del re"
    • From the Telegraph "How much of the UK does the Queen own?"

    Act of conveyance: (atto di cessione) transfer of title in land from one person to another

    Goods and chattels: beni ed effetti
    title interest: diritto nel titolo, interest in the real property

    Lease/let/rent vb. They are used interchangeably – More common:
    To lease/let property to somebody and rent property from somebody
    Lease= n. the agreement
    Rent= n. the money to be paid
    inheritable = passed on to heirs

    Buy to let investment 

    Real Estate in Italypros & cons of leasehold

    Statute of frauds
    The statute of frauds del 1677 fu la prima legge nel sistema inglese a prevedere la forma scritta ad probationem, ossia la possibilità di far valere in giudizio un contratto che è e rimane valido di per sé. Successivamente il Law of Property Act 1925 ritenne obbligatoria la forma scritta ad probationem solo per i contratti aventi per oggetto la proprietà o altri diritti reali su beni terrieri e il Law Reform (Enforcement of Contracts) Act 1954 stabilì che detta forma fosse da ritenersi necessaria per i contratti di garanzia.[read more..]Traditionally, the statute of frauds requires a writing signed by the party against whom enforcement is sought in the following circumstances:
    • Contracts in consideration of marriage. 
    • Contracts which cannot be performed within one year. 
    • Contracts for the transfer of an interest in land. Contracts by the executor of a will to pay a debt of the estate with their own money. 
    • Contracts for the sale of goods above a certain value. 
    • Contracts in which one party becomes a surety (garanzia acts as guarantor) for another party's debt or other obligation.

    Law students often remember these circumstances by the mnemonic "MYLEGS" (marriage, year, land, executor, goods, surety). It is important to note that in the United States, each State; in Canada, each province; and in Australia each State has its own variation on the statute of frauds, which may differ significantly from the traditional list. 

    Self Study

    • Key terms: pp 77-79 ex 16-23  
    • Preparare un glossario specifico per "real property law" ex: escrow (account/agreement) = deposito in garanzia
    • Listening 2  page 78 ex 19-23