giovedì 26 aprile 2018


Commercial law covers a very wide body of law which includes: 
  • contract law, 
  • company law, 
  • tax law,
  • intellectual property law.

Reading 1_commercial law  pp. 60-61 - ex 2-4 
Language Use: Adverb  functions pp 62-63 ex 7-8
Bodies of Law that govern Trade and Commerce

Listening 1: Profile of  a commercial lawyer page 62 ex 5-6
Text Analysis: Letter of application for an internship pp 63-64 ex 11-13
Reading 2- 3 - 4 -

Reading_3 Role of Commercial agents
  • commercial agency agreement
  • to give agents greater protection
  • under EU law
  • good and services
  • provision of services/a service
  • on behalf of/in the name of 
  • flat rate
  • paid on commissions
  • indipendent intermediaries 
  • authority to negotiate
  • provide a convenient structure
  • the principal can benefi from 
  • on commissions basis " no cure, no pay" basis
  • to build sales volume
  • temptation to circumvent 
  • come to an end
  • significant new customer base
  • to take advantage of the goodwill 
Self study
  • Reading_4 Commercial agency contract
  • Language Focus page 71 

giovedì 19 aprile 2018


Language Focus: prepositions
to be arrested ___
to be accused ___
to bring an action ___
to be convicted ____
to be sentenced ___
to have an effect ___
to have an impact ___
to be put ___ probation 
to serve ___ the bench
to serve ___ the governing board of a corporation 
to comply ____ the law
____compliance _____ 

Introduction to Company law
  • Reading 1 pp 50-51 ex 1-3

Partnerships vs Companies or Corporations

Limited partnership with shares= società in accomandita per azioni
Limited Partnership = società in accomandita semplice
General Partnerhip = Società in nome collettivo

Società di Capitali= Società di Capitali
Limited by Shares (plc + Ltd)
Public Company Limited by Shares (plc) = Società per azioni
Private Company Limited by Shares (Ltd) = Società a responsabilità limitata.
Setting up a company in the UK - how easy/difficult is it?

It's quite difficult to find a clear correspondence with the Italian companies especially with srl ones.
Le quote della nostra srl non sono definibili shares ma quota(s), il titolare di quote sarà definito quotaholder. In riferimento al capitale della società non potrò parlare di share capital ma di corporate capital.

The situation improves when it comes to plc (or Ltd) : Il capitale sociale è definito share capital (oppure, con terminologia americana, capital stock), i soci azionisti sono shareholders (o, sempre nella versione U.S.,stockholders) e così i principali organi sociali, quali il consiglio di amministrazione – board of directors – e l’assemblea degli azionisti – shareholders’ meeting.

- board/panel of internal auditors/statutory auditors  = sort of Collegio Sindacale  
 managing director or C.E.O. (Chief Executive Officer) = amministratore delegato
-  incorporation process: 
  • ’atto costitutivo – memorandum of association/articles of incorporation 
  • lo statuto – articles of association/bylaws 
  • iscrizione al registro delle imprese locale – registration

Last but not least.... 
procedure concorsuali – insolvency proceedings 
tassa societaria - corporation tax

That means, when in Italian we refer to a private limited company o  private company limited by shares (Ltd.) we have to talk about:+
- shares quote sociali o di partecipazione
- shareholders soci 
- share capital - capitale sociale
mentre parlare di azioni, azionisti o capitale azionario riferendosi ad una Ltd. sarebbe un errore, per i motivi sopra esposti.
On the other hand, when we in Italian want to refer to a  public company (Plc.) we have to talk about:
shares azioni,
- shareholders azionisti e
- share capital - capitale azionario.
Company act 2006 è una completa codificazione della legge sulle società in Inghilterra e Galles 
  • Reading_3: Breach of Companies Act 2006 pp54-55 ex 12-15
  • Key terms_2: Public relations page 56 ex 20
  • Text analysis: Reading a statute page 57 ex 21-23

Self Study
  • Listening 1 + Listening 2  highly suggested
  • Language Focus pag 59 ex 1-3
  •  Listening 2  Ref section 172 Company Act 2006

Extra exercises_company law  page 328 ex 2; page 330 ex 2; pp 333-334 ex 1,2;page 337 ex 1; pp 339-341 ex 1, 2 Toles foundation practice page 345 ex 1, 2
EXTRA: If you like to investigate more the area of company law
Review of Italian and UKCompany Law.  A joint study by. Consiglio Nazionale dei Dottori Commercialisti e degli Esperti Contabili.

giovedì 22 marzo 2018


Revision Key terms

  • trial /trail/
  • lawsuit
  • out of court settlement
  • claimant/plaintiff
  • defendant
  • find for vs find against
  • affirm vs reverse a judgement
  • proximate cause
  • wilful harm
  • negligence 
  • negligent
  • intentional harm 
  • gross negligence

Frivolous lawsuits  Listening 1 page 32

Reading 4 Letter threatening legal action page 36

Language focus page 38

Reading 1 pp 39-40 ex 3-5 Match the definition with the crimes

1.      armed robbery
a  killing somebody through an act or omission
2.        arson
b  deceiving somebody out of money or property
3.      assault
c  creating a false document
4.      battery
d  using a weapon to take money or property by force or direct threat of violence
5.      bribery
e  violence or abuse against a member of the offender's own household (e.g. wife/husband and children)
6.      burglary
 intentionally burning a building
7.      domestic violence
 buying and selling illegal narcotics
8.      drug trafficking
h  operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of alcohol
9.      drunk driving
i  entering a building with intent to commit a crime
10.  embezzlement
 striking a person with intent to harm
11.  extortion 
k  attempting to physically attack a person.
12.  forgery
l  giving money etc. to influence a public official
13.  fraud
m  stealing from an employer
14.  homicide 
n  obtaining money or property through indirect threats or intimidation 

Self study

Grammar: Passive constructions
Key terms_1: punishments
Reading 2 White-collar crime page 43-44 ex ex 19-21
Law in Practice
Language Use 3: giving advice
Language Focus

Listening 1 - 4 strongly suggested 

giovedì 8 marzo 2018

Lesson 3_2018

Unit 3: Tort Law  Reading 1_ pp28-29 ex 1-5; 

From Tort Law
•civil wrong
•contractual relations
•injured party
•fraudulent misrepresentation
•medical expenses
•monetary damages

Terminology: Explain these terms in your own words. Use expressions such as: this is the word for../This is the person who …/This is what you do when ..
  • damages vs damage
  • assignor vs assignee
  • the non-braching party vs the breaching party
  • specific performance
  • restitution
  • the injured party 
  • remedy

Damages: risarcimento danni, indennizzo, risarcimento

Different types of damages:
  • substantial damages
  • punitive (or exemplary) damages
  • liquidated damages

From the film Erin Brockovich 
What kind of damages are being awarded here? 

Self Study: Consolidate your "legal English" through news articles Look up on the Guardian or the BBC news  to find news articles dealing with:
- Punitive damages / Exemplary damages 
- Nominal damages 
- Substantial damages 

Nel vs articolo estrapolate parole chiavi legate all'area giuridica e pubblicate il lavoro
Enjoy it!
Take this article as an example "nominal damages of £1" What could we learn from reading it?

giovedì 1 marzo 2018


Vocabulary Revision

  • performance and enforcement of contracts
  • offer - acceptance - consideration
  • breach of contract
  • liability
  • strict liability 
  • vicariuos liability
  • nuisance
  • damages vs  damage 

damage: means “loss or injury to a person or property”. It is an uncountable singular noun and has no plural form.
E.g.: The cost of the damage to the US caused by Hurricane Ike was estimated at USD 18 billion.
Other words you could use instead of damageloss, injury
Damages means “money claimed by, or ordered to be paid to, a person as compensation for loss or injury”. It is an uncountable plural noun and has no singular form.
E.g.: The Claimant wishes to sue Acme for damages as a result of a loss sustained by the Claimant after Acme’s failure to perform its obligations.
Other words you could use instead of damagescompensation, satisfaction

  • evidence
  • hearsay
  • law enforcement
  • under the constitution

Language from reading 1
  • Adverb+adjective: intellectually stimulating
  • Verb+preposition: to lead to something; to decide on something; to get involved with something
  • Preposition+noun: in addition (to)
  • Verb+noun: to take a course/subject;to run a partnership; to offer a course; to offer assistance; to hire new recruits
  • Verb+verb: to go on to become something
  • Adjective+noun: future career; local community; day-to-day work; a good command (of English)
  • Noun+noun: work experience

Language from Reading 2:
From contract law: formation, interpretation, performance and enforcement of contracts, offer and acceptance, consideration.
From Tort Law: liability for intentional and negligently caused injures to person and property; strict liability; vicarious liability; ultra-hazardous activities; products liability; nuisance; invasion of privacy; defamation; damages; losses.
From Ciminal Law: crime against persons, property and public administration; the law of homicide
From Evidence: relevancy, hearsay, impeachment, cross-examination.
From Criminal Procedure: regulation of law enforcement, investigation of crimes, search and seizure, electronic surveillance, entrapment,
From Constitutional Law: judicial function, distribution under the constitution, immunities under the constitution.
From legal research & writing: to acquaint students with …; analyze judicial opinions; legal citation; techniques of writing memoranda and briefs.
What to study - core (compulsory) subjects and optional subjects:
  • criminal law, contract law, land law, equity and trusts, administrative law and constitutional law, family law, employment law and housing law,company law, commercial law, litigation and arbitration.
Where to work:
  • Partnership [general partnership (società in nome collettivo) limited partnership (società in accomandita)]
  • Large law practice/firm
  • Commercial practice
  • Sole practitioner
  • Law clinic
Legal writing, legal research, legal practice, legal assistance, legal community,
Law degree programme, law student, law practice, law clinic, law firm

Awkward words
- equity and trusts = affidamento fiduciario - Leggi "L'utilizzo del trust in Italia"
- Podcast - What is equity?  + Material accompanyng the podcast
- equity vs common law 
Revision Unit 1 A career in Law 

Introduction to Contract Law: 
consideration (nella common law si tratta di un interesse, un vantaggio, un beneficio ricevuto da una parte; ovvero un sacrificio, una perdita concessa, subita o sopportata dall'altra parte.)
From "English for Law"  Cornerlsen: Contract Law Consideration
counter offer
essential terms
assignor (who transfers sth - cedente)  vs assignee (who is entrusted with sth cessionario/assegnatario)
specific performance
breaching party vs non-breaching party/injured party 
binding contract vs non-binding 

- An offer
Accept, make, reject, withdraw, increase, submit, receive, consider
- A contract
Breach/form/negotiate/perform/draw up/draft/sign a contract
- Damages
Accept/award/claim/win/receive/seek/pay damages
- A lawsuit
File/bring (fare causa)/launch (avviare)/persue/win/lose

What actions do they carry out
A party
Breaches a contract/performs a contract
The parties
Negotiate an offer/negotiate a contract/form a contract
The court
Enforces a contract/awards damages
A lawyer
Files a lawsuit/negotiates an offer/negotiates a contract/accepts an offer

Focus on: enforce/enforceable (esecutivo)
To enforce: verbo transitivo
1. (impose) imporre [rule, silence, discipline];
fare rispettare, applicare [law, court order];
fare valere [legal rights];
esigere [payment];
fare rispettare [contract]
Enforceable (esempio) 

2. For that reason, the parties consent that such covenants shall be enforceable in a court of equity by temporary or permanent injunction, restraining order or a decree of specific performance. The remedies provided above shall be cumulative and not exclusive and are in addition to any other remedies, which either party may have under this Agreement or applicable law.

Per tale motivo, le parti acconsentono/convengono che tali clausole debbano essere fatte valere in una corte di equità con ingiunzione (esecutiva) permanente o temporanea, ordine restrittivo o atto specifico. Le azioni (giudiziarie) elencate sopra devono essere cumulative e non esclusive e si intendono in aggiunta alle azioni che una delle due parti può esperire in base al presente accordo(ovvero) applicabili per legge.

Self Study 
  • Reading 2 p. 20 ex 9-10
  • Listening 2 p. 21 ex 19-20
  • Reading 3 p. 22 ex 22-24
  • Modal verbs 
  • Focus on language page 27

domenica 11 febbraio 2018


Friday 23rd February at 9:00 am 

Get to know my students:  Why are you studying law?? What made you choose this course of study?   You are invited to leave your answer in the comment area..

 Le caratteristiche dell'inglese legale Presentation given 

- Programma a.a. 2017-2018
- Entry Test
Text book unit 1 and unit 2 

Please find above a copy of unit 1/2 from the textbook - You will need to study all the reading parts + exercises
Reading 1
Reading 2
Grammar: Comparative and superlative forms
Reading 3
Language Focus

giovedì 18 maggio 2017

Legal English_Lesson_11UniTaranto

Revision Reading 4 (Unit 9) 

How to read a decision of the Supreme Court

  • cer•ti•o•ra•ri  n. [Law.]

Law a writ issuing from a superior court calling up the record of a proceeding in an inferior court for review. Also called writ of certiorari.
Etymology:  15th Century: from legal Latin: to be informed

  • Microsoft CORP. v. AT&T CORP 
  • to file an infringement suit
  • to charge Microsoft with liability for 
  • to be liable under s.271(f)
  • to be entitled to 
  • damages for breaches of its patent
  • to be liable for sth
  • the  court's hearing
  • exception to the general rule
  • the reasoning behind
  • under what circumstances 

How cases are referenced:

  • in Common Law: by name "Dononghue vs Stevenson"
  • in Civil Law: by number "Decision n. 2014-446 QPC  du 20 Janvier 2015"

Unit 10 - Reading 1 Comparative Law pp 106-107 ex 1-3

List of legal systems

• Civil Law

• Common Law

• Religious Law (Muslim Law, Hindu Law, Jewish Law)

• Chinese Law

• Socialist Law

Some video lessons on the difference between common law and civil law

Reading 2 pp107-108 ex 4-6

Self Study
Reading 3 Asset protection pp 112-113 ex 25-28

Text analysis: Discourse markers for text cohesion pag 112 ex 28

giovedì 4 maggio 2017

Legal English_Lesson_9UniTaranto

 International Law
Reading 1: International Law pp 94-96 ex 2-5
Reading 2 ex 7-9

newsworthy reports: 

  1. Parties to a treaty
  2. ....the treaty is in force
  3. ....a signatory to a convention
  4. Under the Convention on the Rights of the Child
  5. ...are entitled to special protection
  6. International laws apply to the citizens
  7. ...regulations are binding on Partner States

Intergovernmental organizations

No significant differences:
Conventions – Vienna Convention 
  • agreemments
  • charters
  • framework conventions deal with very broad areas

United Nations 

Listening 9.1
Text analysis audio transcript 9.1 pag 136

Collocations - phrasal verbs - idiomatic expressions - collocations
  •  to have a considerable impact on (sth/so)
  • to have a considerable impact in (place)
  • to be seen in the context of
  • a growing concern
  • to rely on
  • to accuse someone over/of sth
  • to go up to
  • to call in
  • to have right to ..
  • the right of someone to ....
  • to take actions against ..
  • social dumping
  • wage dumping
  • collective bargaining
  • fair working conditions
  • regardless of ...

Self study

List of legal systems 
• Civil Law 
• Common Law 
• Religious Law (Muslim Law, Hindu Law, Jewish Law) 
• Chinese Law 
• Socialist Law

Reading 3 pp 100 ex 17-20
Language focus: page 105 ex 1-3