giovedì 17 maggio 2018


International Law
Reading 1: International Law pp 94-96 ex 2-5
Reading 2 ex 7-9

newsworthy reports: 

  1. Parties to a treaty
  2. ....the treaty is in force
  3. ....a signatory to a convention
  4. Under the Convention on the Rights of the Child
  5. ...are entitled to special protection
  6. International laws apply to the citizens
  7. ...regulations are binding on Partner States

Intergovernmental organizations

No significant differences:
Conventions – Vienna Convention 
  • agreemments
  • charters
  • framework conventions deal with very broad areas

United Nations 

Listening 9.1
Text analysis audio transcript 9.1 pag 136

Collocations - phrasal verbs - idiomatic expressions - collocations
  •  to have a considerable impact on (sth/so)
  • to have a considerable impact in (place)
  • to be seen in the context of
  • a growing concern
  • to rely on
  • to accuse someone over/of sth
  • to go up to
  • to call in
  • to have right to ..
  • the right of someone to ....
  • to take actions against ..
  • social dumping
  • wage dumping
  • collective bargaining
  • fair working conditions
  • regardless of ...

Self study

List of legal systems 
• Civil Law 
• Common Law 
• Religious Law (Muslim Law, Hindu Law, Jewish Law) 
• Chinese Law 
• Socialist Law

Reading 3 pp 100 ex 17-20
Language focus: page 105 ex 1-3

mercoledì 16 maggio 2018


Reading 1 Litigation and Arbitration pp 83-84 ex 2,3

Focus on language: How do you say that … in Italian?
  • Disputing parties
  • Litigation
  • Settlement
  • Hearing
  • Pleading: formal statement served by each party to a lawsuit to one another, and containing their respective positions (allegations, claims, defences, denies)
  • Out –of-court settlement
  • Binding decision
  • Legal fees
  • To settle a dispute
  • To reach a settlement
  • To enforce/deliver judgment
  • To save money on
  • To threaten to sue
  • To face court proceedings/litigation costs
  • To deny accusations
  • To pursue a claim
  • In connection with
Examples of disputes:• Dispute over people's behaviour may involve conflict between neighbours over anti-social behaviour (loud parties or verbal abuse)
• Business disputes can involve different interpretation of the terms of a contract, or questions over whether a contract has been breached, and what remedies/damages are appropriate.
• Planning disputes include situations where, for example, a property owner plans to construct a new building, or improve an existing building. (ie planning permissions)
• Environmental disputes include disputes over resources and questions over who has the right to exploit those resources, and at what cost to the environment. 
    ADR: Alternative Dispute Resolution:
    • negotiation: participation is voluntary and there is no third party who facilitates the resolution process or imposes a resolution
    • arbitration:participation is typically voluntary, and there is a third party who, as a private judge, imposes a resolution. Arbitrations often occur because parties to contracts agree that any future dispute concerning the agreement will be resolved by arbitration.
    • mediation:there is a third party, a mediator, who facilitates the resolution process (and may even suggest a resolution, typically known as a "mediator's proposal"), but does not impose a resolution on the parties

    Reading 2 letter of invitation pp 85-86 ex 7 - ref to ELSA (European Law Students' association 
    Grammar Practice:
    Reading 3 Avoiding litigation page 88 ex 14-16
    Reading 4 Cost of litigation page 89 ex 18-21
    Reading 5 Letter before action pp 89-91 ex 22-28

    • strictly private and confidential
    • fully entitled
    • shortly forthcoming
    • strenuously denies
    • recently informed
    • confidential information
    • previous criticism
    • a positive asset
    • a substantial increase
    • constructive dismissal (licenziamento senza giusta causa)
    • excellent prospects
    • exemplary damages
    • alternative means
    • satisfactory proposals

    Self Study
    Listening 1 Question and answer session
    pag 87 ex 10-12 peanut kernel case
    Listening 2 Lawyer-client interview pp 91-91 ex 29-32
    Language Focus page 93

    giovedì 3 maggio 2018


    Revision vocabulary 

    • to advise a client ___ a matter
    • a breach __ contract
    • Commercial law is governed ___ international treaties
    • An agent works ____ behalf ____ a principal
    • to apply ____ an internship
    • a contract comes _____force 

    to secure a payment
    to enforce law
    to grant an indemnity

    Unit 7: Real property law
    pp. 72-73 ex 1-3 Instruments and people in real property law

    • lease= (contratto di locazione) o meglio diritto di godere di un immobile per un certo tempo.
    • licence = licenza d'uso
    • deed = atto (notarile)
    • tenant
    • landlord
    • heir
    • grantor = concessore
    • grantee = beneficiario
    • licencee
    • Language use: Forming adjectives with negative prefixes pag. 74 ex 5,6
    Reading 2: Real Property investment law ex 7, 9
    • Key terms 2: Buying real property ex 16

      Language notes:
      I termini "freehold" e “leasehold” sono entrambi termini di matrice feudale, che rappresentano due sistemi tipici per possedere una proprietà in UK .

      Il primo possiamo renderlo con “proprietà fondiaria assoluta/libera” Chi acquista una “freehold” proprietà diventa “freeholder” e acquisisce il massimo dei poteri possibili su quell’immobile e senza alcun limite di tempo;

      Rientrano nell'istituto di freehold:
      • Fee simple = diritto assoluto sulla proprietà 
      • fee tail = Il beneficiario ha un diritto limitato in quanto non può vendere il bene ma solo tramandarlo ai suoi eredi; la proprietà ha un vincolo inalienabile
      • life estate = il bene è di proprietà del beneficiario solo per la durata della sua vita 
      • Estate pur (pour) autre vie = simile al life estate ma il bene è di proprietà del beneficiario per la durata della vita di una terza persona. For example, if Bob is given use of the family house for as long as his mother lives, he has possession of the house pur autre vie

      Leasehold, pur traducendosi con proprietà in affitto, si riferisce alla locazione del suolo. Il termine fa riferimento ad un rapporto giuridico in base al quale un soggetto detto lessor(locatore) conferisce al lessee (locatario) un diritto esclusivo di proprietà sull’immobile per un periodo di tempo determinato, di solito per una consideration detta ground rent . Deve essere sottolineato che il lease si differenzia profondamente dalla locazione così come intesa nei sistemi civilistici, soprattutto per il fatto che il titolare del lease è titolare di un diritto di natura reale sull’immobile, dove invece il locatario dei sistemi di civil law può vantare soltanto un diritto di credito nei confronti del locatore. Quando si acquista una proprietà con leasehold bisogna prestare attenzione alle covenants, ossia le obbligazioni alle quali il lessee è tenuto ad osservare, la cui presenza rappresenta una delle particolarità più difficile da accettare per chi è abituato al sistema civilistico.

    • Dal Il sole 24 ore "A Londra la proprietà è del re"
    • From the Telegraph "How much of the UK does the Queen own?"

    Act of conveyance: (atto di cessione) transfer of title in land from one person to another

    Goods and chattels: beni ed effetti
    title interest: diritto nel titolo, interest in the real property

    Lease/let/rent vb. They are used interchangeably – More common:
    To lease/let property to somebody and rent property from somebody
    Lease= n. the agreement
    Rent= n. the money to be paid
    inheritable = passed on to heirs

    Buy to let investment 

    Real Estate in Italypros & cons of leasehold

    Statute of frauds
    The statute of frauds del 1677 fu la prima legge nel sistema inglese a prevedere la forma scritta ad probationem, ossia la possibilità di far valere in giudizio un contratto che è e rimane valido di per sé. Successivamente il Law of Property Act 1925 ritenne obbligatoria la forma scritta ad probationem solo per i contratti aventi per oggetto la proprietà o altri diritti reali su beni terrieri e il Law Reform (Enforcement of Contracts) Act 1954 stabilì che detta forma fosse da ritenersi necessaria per i contratti di garanzia.[read more..]Traditionally, the statute of frauds requires a writing signed by the party against whom enforcement is sought in the following circumstances:
    • Contracts in consideration of marriage. 
    • Contracts which cannot be performed within one year. 
    • Contracts for the transfer of an interest in land. Contracts by the executor of a will to pay a debt of the estate with their own money. 
    • Contracts for the sale of goods above a certain value. 
    • Contracts in which one party becomes a surety (garanzia acts as guarantor) for another party's debt or other obligation.

    Law students often remember these circumstances by the mnemonic "MYLEGS" (marriage, year, land, executor, goods, surety). It is important to note that in the United States, each State; in Canada, each province; and in Australia each State has its own variation on the statute of frauds, which may differ significantly from the traditional list. 

    Self Study

    • Key terms: pp 77-79 ex 16-23  
    • Preparare un glossario specifico per "real property law" ex: escrow (account/agreement) = deposito in garanzia
    • Listening 2  page 78 ex 19-23

    giovedì 26 aprile 2018


    Language revision: Company law
    • limited liability
    • sole propriator
    • third party
    • constitutional documents
    • corporate funding
    • public listed company
    • not personally liable for
    • debts and liabilities
    • double taxation
    • enjoy many advantages
    • benefits and drawbacks
    • advise on the best form your business should take

    The Companies Act 2006 is an act of parliament that currently serves as the primary source of company law in the UK. This particular act has the distinction of being the longest in the history of British Parliament, containing 1,300 sections that span over 700 pages, with a list of contents that is 59 pages long. The act also contained 16 schedules, but those have since been superseded by the Corporation Tax Act of 2009.
    The provisions of the act were implemented gradually in stages, with the final provision being put into force on October 2009. Changes were made to almost every aspect of UK company law, but the following are the key components of the act:

    • Introduced new provisions for public and private companies
    • Implemented the European Union’s Transparency Obligations and Takeover Directives
    • Codified numerous existing common law principles, including those related to directors’ duties
    • Amended or restated almost all aspects of the Companies Act 1985
    • Applied a single unified company law regime for the entire UK, replacing the previously used 
    • Separate systems for Northern Ireland and Great Britain 

    Commercial law covers a very wide body of law which includes: 
    • contract law, 
    • company law, 
    • tax law,
    • intellectual property law.

    Reading 1_commercial law  pp. 60-61 - ex 2-4 
    Language Use: Adverb  functions pp 62-63 ex 7-8
    Bodies of Law that govern Trade and Commerce

    Listening 1: Profile of  a commercial lawyer page 62 ex 5-6
    Text Analysis: Letter of application for an internship pp 63-64 ex 11-13
    Reading 2- 3 - 4 -

    Reading_3 Role of Commercial agents
    • commercial agency agreement
    • to give agents greater protection
    • under EU law
    • good and services
    • provision of services/a service
    • on behalf of/in the name of 
    • flat rate
    • paid on commissions
    • indipendent intermediaries 
    • authority to negotiate
    • provide a convenient structure
    • the principal can benefit from 
    • on commissions basis " no cure, no pay" basis
    • to build sales volume
    • temptation to circumvent 
    • come to an end
    • significant new customer base
    • to take advantage of the goodwill 
    Self study
    • Reading_4 Commercial agency contract
    • Language Focus page 71 

    giovedì 19 aprile 2018


    Language Focus: prepositions
    to be arrested ___
    to be accused ___
    to bring an action ___
    to be convicted ____
    to be sentenced ___
    to have an effect ___
    to have an impact ___
    to be put ___ probation 
    to serve ___ the bench
    to serve ___ the governing board of a corporation 
    to comply ____ the law
    ____compliance _____ 

    Introduction to Company law
    • Reading 1 pp 50-51 ex 1-3

    Partnerships vs Companies or Corporations

    Limited partnership with shares= società in accomandita per azioni
    Limited Partnership = società in accomandita semplice
    General Partnerhip = Società in nome collettivo

    Società di Capitali= Società di Capitali
    Limited by Shares (plc + Ltd)
    Public Company Limited by Shares (plc) = Società per azioni
    Private Company Limited by Shares (Ltd) = Società a responsabilità limitata.
    Setting up a company in the UK - how easy/difficult is it?

    It's quite difficult to find a clear correspondence with the Italian companies especially with srl ones.
    Le quote della nostra srl non sono definibili shares ma quota(s), il titolare di quote sarà definito quotaholder. In riferimento al capitale della società non potrò parlare di share capital ma di corporate capital.

    The situation improves when it comes to plc (or Ltd) : Il capitale sociale è definito share capital (oppure, con terminologia americana, capital stock), i soci azionisti sono shareholders (o, sempre nella versione U.S.,stockholders) e così i principali organi sociali, quali il consiglio di amministrazione – board of directors – e l’assemblea degli azionisti – shareholders’ meeting.

    - board/panel of internal auditors/statutory auditors  = sort of Collegio Sindacale  
     managing director or C.E.O. (Chief Executive Officer) = amministratore delegato
    -  incorporation process: 
    • ’atto costitutivo – memorandum of association/articles of incorporation 
    • lo statuto – articles of association/bylaws 
    • iscrizione al registro delle imprese locale – registration

    Last but not least.... 
    procedure concorsuali – insolvency proceedings 
    tassa societaria - corporation tax

    That means, when in Italian we refer to a private limited company o  private company limited by shares (Ltd.) we have to talk about:+
    - shares quote sociali o di partecipazione
    - shareholders soci 
    - share capital - capitale sociale
    mentre parlare di azioni, azionisti o capitale azionario riferendosi ad una Ltd. sarebbe un errore, per i motivi sopra esposti.
    On the other hand, when we in Italian want to refer to a  public company (Plc.) we have to talk about:
    shares azioni,
    - shareholders azionisti e
    - share capital - capitale azionario.
    Company act 2006 è una completa codificazione della legge sulle società in Inghilterra e Galles 
    • Reading_3: Breach of Companies Act 2006 pp54-55 ex 12-15
    • Key terms_2: Public relations page 56 ex 20
    • Text analysis: Reading a statute page 57 ex 21-23

    Self Study
    • Listening 1 + Listening 2  highly suggested
    • Language Focus pag 59 ex 1-3
    •  Listening 2  Ref section 172 Company Act 2006

    Extra exercises_company law  page 328 ex 2; page 330 ex 2; pp 333-334 ex 1,2;page 337 ex 1; pp 339-341 ex 1, 2 Toles foundation practice page 345 ex 1, 2
    EXTRA: If you like to investigate more the area of company law
    Review of Italian and UKCompany Law.  A joint study by. Consiglio Nazionale dei Dottori Commercialisti e degli Esperti Contabili.

    giovedì 22 marzo 2018


    Revision Key terms

    • trial /trail/
    • lawsuit
    • out of court settlement
    • claimant/plaintiff
    • defendant
    • find for vs find against
    • affirm vs reverse a judgement
    • proximate cause
    • wilful harm
    • negligence 
    • negligent
    • intentional harm 
    • gross negligence

    Frivolous lawsuits  Listening 1 page 32

    Reading 4 Letter threatening legal action page 36

    Language focus page 38

    Reading 1 pp 39-40 ex 3-5 Match the definition with the crimes

    1.      armed robbery
    a  killing somebody through an act or omission
    2.        arson
    b  deceiving somebody out of money or property
    3.      assault
    c  creating a false document
    4.      battery
    d  using a weapon to take money or property by force or direct threat of violence
    5.      bribery
    e  violence or abuse against a member of the offender's own household (e.g. wife/husband and children)
    6.      burglary
     intentionally burning a building
    7.      domestic violence
     buying and selling illegal narcotics
    8.      drug trafficking
    h  operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of alcohol
    9.      drunk driving
    i  entering a building with intent to commit a crime
    10.  embezzlement
     striking a person with intent to harm
    11.  extortion 
    k  attempting to physically attack a person.
    12.  forgery
    l  giving money etc. to influence a public official
    13.  fraud
    m  stealing from an employer
    14.  homicide 
    n  obtaining money or property through indirect threats or intimidation 

    Self study

    Grammar: Passive constructions
    Key terms_1: punishments
    Reading 2 White-collar crime page 43-44 ex ex 19-21
    Law in Practice
    Language Use 3: giving advice
    Language Focus

    Listening 1 - 4 strongly suggested