giovedì 28 aprile 2016


Reading 3 Avoiding litigation page 88 ex 14-16
Reading 4 Cost of litigation page 89 ex 18-21

Language Focus
to reach an agreement
to file a lawsuit
to deliver a judgement
to decide on an outcome
to settle a dispute

  • strictly private and confidential
  • fully entitled
  • shortly forthcoming
  • strenuously denies
  • recently informed
  • confidential information
  • previous criticism
  • a positive asset
  • a substantial increase
  • constructive dismissal (licenziamento senza giusta causa)
  • excellent prospects
  • exemplary damages
  • alternative means
  • satisfactory proposals

Reading 5 Letter before action pp 89-91 ex 22-28

Self study
Listening 2 Lawyer-client interview pp 91-91 ex 29-32
Language Focus page 93
Unit 9: International law Reading 1 pp 94-95 ex 1-3 

lunedì 25 aprile 2016


Unit 8 _ Litigation and Arbitration

Focus on language: How do you say that … in Italian?
  • Disputing parties
  • Litigation
  • Settlement
  • Hearing
  • Pleading
  • Out –of-court settlement
  • Binding decision
  • Legal fees
  • To settle a dispute
  • To reach a settlement
  • To enforce/deliver judgment
  • To save money on
  • To threaten to sue
  • To face court proceedings/litigation costs
  • To deny accusations
  • To pursue a claim
  • In connection with
Examples of disputes:• Dispute over people's behaviour may involve conflict between neighbours over anti-social behaviour (loud parties or verbal abuse)
• Business disputes can involve different interpretation of the terms of a contract, or questions over whether a contract has been breached, and what remedies/damages are appropriate.
• Planning disputes include situations where, for example, a property owner plans to construct a new building, or improve an existing building. (ie planning permissions)
• Environmental disputes include disputes over resources and questions over who has the right to exploit those resources, and at what cost to the environment. 
    ADR: Alternative Dispute Resolution:
    • negotiation: participation is voluntary and there is no third party who facilitates the resolution process or imposes a resolution
    • arbitration:participation is typically voluntary, and there is a third party who, as a private judge, imposes a resolution. Arbitrations often occur because parties to contracts agree that any future dispute concerning the agreement will be resolved by arbitration.
    • mediation:there is a third party, a mediator, who facilitates the resolution process (and may even suggest a resolution, typically known as a "mediator's proposal"), but does not impose a resolution on the parties

    Reading 2 letter of invitation pp 85-86 ex 7 - ref to ELSA (European Law Students' Association 
    Grammar Practice:

    Self Study
    Listening 1 Question and answer session
    pag 87 ex 10-12 peanut kernel case
    Reading 3 Avoiding litigation page 88 ex 14-16
    Reading 4 Cost of litigation page 89 ex 18-21

    venerdì 22 aprile 2016

    Lesson 12

    Vocabulary revision
    Laguage Use: formal vs informal page 76 ex 9
    Key terms Buying a real property page 77-79  ex 16-23
    Vocabulary from Listening 2 

    Reading 3: Draft tenancy agreement page 80 ex 25
    Language focus page 82 ex 1-4

    Self Study
    Reading 1 Litigation and Arbitration pp 84-84 ex 2,3

    lunedì 18 aprile 2016


    Unit 7: Real property law
    pp. 72-73 ex 1-3
    Instruments and people in real property law

    • lease= (contratto di locazione) o meglio diritto di godere di un immobile per un certo tempo.
    • licence = licenza d'uso
    • deed = atto (notarile)
    • tenant
    • landlord
    • heir = someone entitled to inherit 
    • grantor = concessore
    • grantee = beneficiario
    • licencee
    Language use: Forming adjectives with negative prefixes pag. 74 ex 5,6
    Reading 2: Real Property investment law ex 7, 9

    Key terms 2: Buying real property ex 16

    Language notes:
    I termini "freehold" e “leasehold” sono entrambi termini di matrice feudale, che rappresentano due sistemi tipici per possedere una proprietà in UK .

    Il primo possiamo renderlo con “proprietà fondiaria assoluta/libera” Chi acquista una “freehold” proprietà diventa “freeholder” e acquisisce il massimo dei poteri possibili su quell’immobile e senza alcun limite di tempo;

    Rientrano nell'istituto di freehold:
    • Fee simple = diritto assoluto sulla proprietà 
    • fee tail = Il beneficiario ha un diritto limitato in quanto non può vendere il bene ma solo tramandarlo ai suoi eredi; la proprietà ha un vincolo inalienabile
    • life estate = il bene è di proprietà del beneficiario solo per la durata della sua vita 
    • Estate pur (pour) autre vie = simile al life estate ma il bene è di proprietà del beneficiario per la durata della vita di una terza persona. For example, if Bob is given use of the family house for as long as his mother lives, he has possession of the house pur autre vie

    Leasehold, pur traducendosi con proprietà in affitto, si riferisce alla locazione del suolo. Il termine fa riferimento ad un rapporto giuridico in base al quale un soggetto detto lessor(locatore) conferisce al lessee (locatario) un diritto esclusivo di proprietà sull’immobile per un periodo di tempo determinato, di solito per una consideration detta ground rent . Deve essere sottolineato che il lease si differenzia profondamente dalla locazione così come intesa nei sistemi civilistici, soprattutto per il fatto che il titolare del lease è titolare di un diritto di natura reale sull’immobile, dove invece il locatario dei sistemi di civil law può vantare soltanto un diritto di credito nei confronti del locatore. Quando si acquista una proprietà con leasehold bisogna prestare attenzione alle covenants, ossia le obbligazioni alle quali il lessee è tenuto ad osservare, la cui presenza rappresenta una delle particolarità più difficile da accettare per chi è abituato al sistema civilistico.

    - Dal Il sole 24 ore "A Londra la proprietà è del re"

    Act of conveyance: (atto di cessione) transfer of title in land from one person to another

    Goods and chattels: beni ed effetti
    title interest: diritto nel titolo, interest in the real property

    Lease/let/rent vb. They are used interchangeably – More common:
    To lease/let property to somebody and rent property from somebody
    Lease= n. the agreement
    Rent= n. the money to be paid
    inheritable = passed on to heirs

    Buy to let investment 

    Real Estate in Italypros & cons of leasehold

    Statute of frauds
    The statute of frauds del 1677 fu la prima legge nel sistema inglese a prevedere la forma scritta ad probationem, ossia la possibilità di far valere in giudizio un contratto che è e rimane valido di per sé. Successivamente il Law of Property Act 1925 ritenne obbligatoria la forma scritta ad probationem solo per i contratti aventi per oggetto la proprietà o altri diritti reali su beni terrieri e il Law Reform (Enforcement of Contracts) Act 1954 stabilì che detta forma fosse da ritenersi necessaria per i contratti di garanzia.[read more..]Traditionally, the statute of frauds requires a writing signed by the party against whom enforcement is sought in the following circumstances:
    • Contracts in consideration of marriage. 
    • Contracts which cannot be performed within one year. 
    • Contracts for the transfer of an interest in land. Contracts by the executor of a will to pay a debt of the estate with their own money. 
    • Contracts for the sale of goods above a certain value. 
    • Contracts in which one party becomes a surety (garanzia acts as guarantor) for another party's debt or other obligation.

    Law students often remember these circumstances by the mnemonic "MYLEGS" (marriage, year, land, executor, goods, surety). It is important to note that in the United States, each State; in Canada, each province; and in Australia each State has its own variation on the statute of frauds, which may differ significantly from the traditional list. 

    Self Study

    • Key terms: pp 77-79 ex 16-23  
    • Preparare un glossario specifico per "real property law" ex: escrow (account/agreement) = deposito in garanzia
    • Listening 2  page 78 ex 19-23

    giovedì 7 aprile 2016


    Reading_3 Role of Commercial agents
    • commercial agency agreement
    • to give agents greater protection
    • under EU law
    • good and services
    • provision of services/a service
    • on behalf of/in the name of 
    • flat rate
    • paid on commissions
    • indipendent intermediaries 
    • authority to negotiate
    • provide a convenient structure
    • the principal can benefi from 
    • on commissions basis " no cure, no pay" basis
    • to build sales volume
    • temptation to circumvent 
    • come to an end
    • significant new customer base
    • to take advantage of the goodwill 

    Reading_4 Commercial agency contract

    Language Focus page 71 

    Self Study

    Unit 7: Real property law
    pp. 72-73 ex 1-3
    Instruments and people in real property law

    • lease= (contratto di locazione) o meglio diritto di godere di un immobile per un certo tempo.
    • licence = licenza d'uso
    • deed = atto (notarile)
    • tenant
    • landlord
    • heir
    • grantor = concessore
    • grantee = beneficiario
    • licencee

    lunedì 4 aprile 2016


    Commercial law covers a very wide body of law which includes: 
    • contract law, 
    • company law, 
    • tax law,
    • intellectual property law.

    Unit 6_ Reading 1_commercial law  pp. 60-61 - ex 2-4 
    Language Use: Adverb  functions pp 62-63 ex 7-8

    Self Study
    Listening 1: Profile of  a commercial lawyer page 62 ex 5-6
    Text Analysis: Letter of application for an internship pp 63-64 ex 11-13
    Reading 2- 3 - 4 -