domenica 22 maggio 2016

Lesson 20_21

Dal text book 

Esercizi di consolidamento Unit 1 - Unit 10  da  completare -  Gli studenti possono postare le loro risposte sul gruppo di facebook. In questo caso occorre tuttavia utilizzare il copia e incolla di tutto l'esercizio e inserire le risposte nel commento .. in modo tale che anche altri possano intervenire..


Sample exam Paper  da stampare e completare - Questo è un esempio tipico del tipo di esame che verrà somministrato. 

lunedì 16 maggio 2016

Lesson_19

Revision Reading 4 (Unit 9) 
How to read a decision of the Supreme Court


  • cer•ti•o•ra•ri  n. [Law.]

Law a writ issuing from a superior court calling up the record of a proceeding in an inferior court for review. Also called writ of certiorari.
Etymology:  15th Century: from legal Latin: to be informed

  • Microsoft CORP. v. AT&T CORP 
  • to file an infringement suit
  • to charge Microsoft with liability for 
  • to be liable under s.271(f)
  • to be entitled to 
  • damages for breaches of its patent
  • to be liable for sth
  • the  court's hearing
  • exception to the general rule
  • the reasoning behind
  • under what circumstances 


How cases are referenced:

  • in Common Law: by name "Dononghue vs Stevenson"
  • in Civil Law: by number "Decision n. 2014-446 QPC  du 20 Janvier 2015"




Unit 10 - Reading 1 Comparative Law pp 106-107 ex 1-3

List of legal systems

• Civil Law

• Common Law

• Religious Law (Muslim Law, Hindu Law, Jewish Law)

• Chinese Law

• Socialist Law

Some video lessons on the difference between common law and civil law




Reading 2 pp107-108 ex 4-6

Self Study
Reading 3 Asset protection pp 112-113 ex 25-28

Text analysis: Discourse markers for text cohesion pag 112 ex 28

venerdì 13 maggio 2016

Lesson_18

Videos: 



Text analysis audio transcript 9.1 pag 136

Collocations - phrasal verbs - idiomatic expressions - collocations
  •  to have a considerable impact on (sth/so)
  • to have a considerable impact in (place)
  • to be seen in the context of
  • a growing concern
  • to rely on
  • to accuse someone over/of sth
  • to go up to
  • to call in
  • to have right to ..
  • the right of someone to ....
  • to take actions against ..
  • social dumping
  • wage dumping
  • collective bargaining
  • fair working conditions
  • regardless of ...
List of legal systems 
• Civil Law 
• Common Law 
• Religious Law (Muslim Law, Hindu Law, Jewish Law) 
• Chinese Law 
• Socialist Law

Revision: Reading 3 and 4 + exercises

Language focus: page 105 ex 1-3

Self Study
Unit 10 - Reading 1 Comparative Law pp 106-107 ex 1-3

sabato 7 maggio 2016

lunedì 2 maggio 2016

Lesson_15

New Unit: International Law

Unit 9 - Reading 1: International Law pp 94-96 ex 2-5

newsworthy reports: 



Prepositions:
  1. Parties to a treaty
  2. ....the treaty is in force
  3. ....a signatory to a convention
  4. Under the Convention on the Rights of the Child
  5. ...are entitled to special protection
  6. International laws apply to the citizens
  7. ...regulations are binding on Partner States

Intergovernmental organizations

No significant differences:
Conventions – Vienna Convention (full text)
  • agreemments
  • charters
  • framework conventions deal with very broad areas

United Nations 

Reading 2 pp 96-97 ex 6-11

Self Study
Listening 1 CPD Seminar on labour law ex 12-14
Reading 3 pp 100 ex 17-20

giovedì 28 aprile 2016

Lesson_14

Reading 3 Avoiding litigation page 88 ex 14-16
Reading 4 Cost of litigation page 89 ex 18-21

Language Focus
Collocations:
to reach an agreement
to file a lawsuit
to deliver a judgement
to decide on an outcome
to settle a dispute

adverb-adjective
  • strictly private and confidential
  • fully entitled
  • shortly forthcoming
adverb-verb
  • strenuously denies
  • recently informed
adjective-noun
  • confidential information
  • previous criticism
  • a positive asset
  • a substantial increase
  • constructive dismissal (licenziamento senza giusta causa)
  • excellent prospects
  • exemplary damages
  • alternative means
  • satisfactory proposals

Reading 5 Letter before action pp 89-91 ex 22-28

Self study
Listening 2 Lawyer-client interview pp 91-91 ex 29-32
Language Focus page 93
Unit 9: International law Reading 1 pp 94-95 ex 1-3 

lunedì 25 aprile 2016

Lesson_13

Unit 8 _ Litigation and Arbitration

Focus on language: How do you say that … in Italian?
  • Disputing parties
  • Litigation
  • Settlement
  • Hearing
  • Pleading
  • Out –of-court settlement
  • Binding decision
  • Legal fees
  • To settle a dispute
  • To reach a settlement
  • To enforce/deliver judgment
  • To save money on
  • To threaten to sue
  • To face court proceedings/litigation costs
  • To deny accusations
  • To pursue a claim
  • In connection with
Examples of disputes:• Dispute over people's behaviour may involve conflict between neighbours over anti-social behaviour (loud parties or verbal abuse)
• Business disputes can involve different interpretation of the terms of a contract, or questions over whether a contract has been breached, and what remedies/damages are appropriate.
• Planning disputes include situations where, for example, a property owner plans to construct a new building, or improve an existing building. (ie planning permissions)
• Environmental disputes include disputes over resources and questions over who has the right to exploit those resources, and at what cost to the environment. 
    ADR: Alternative Dispute Resolution:
    • negotiation: participation is voluntary and there is no third party who facilitates the resolution process or imposes a resolution
    • arbitration:participation is typically voluntary, and there is a third party who, as a private judge, imposes a resolution. Arbitrations often occur because parties to contracts agree that any future dispute concerning the agreement will be resolved by arbitration.
    • mediation:there is a third party, a mediator, who facilitates the resolution process (and may even suggest a resolution, typically known as a "mediator's proposal"), but does not impose a resolution on the parties

    Reading 2 letter of invitation pp 85-86 ex 7 - ref to ELSA (European Law Students' Association 
    Grammar Practice:


    Self Study
    Listening 1 Question and answer session
    pag 87 ex 10-12 peanut kernel case
    Reading 3 Avoiding litigation page 88 ex 14-16
    Reading 4 Cost of litigation page 89 ex 18-21

    venerdì 22 aprile 2016

    Lesson 12

    Vocabulary revision
    Laguage Use: formal vs informal page 76 ex 9
    Key terms Buying a real property page 77-79  ex 16-23
    Vocabulary from Listening 2 


    Reading 3: Draft tenancy agreement page 80 ex 25
    Language focus page 82 ex 1-4


    Self Study
    Reading 1 Litigation and Arbitration pp 84-84 ex 2,3

    lunedì 18 aprile 2016

    Lesson_11

    Unit 7: Real property law
    pp. 72-73 ex 1-3
    Instruments and people in real property law


    • lease= (contratto di locazione) o meglio diritto di godere di un immobile per un certo tempo.
    • licence = licenza d'uso
    • deed = atto (notarile)
    • tenant
    • landlord
    • heir = someone entitled to inherit 
    • grantor = concessore
    • grantee = beneficiario
    • licencee
    Language use: Forming adjectives with negative prefixes pag. 74 ex 5,6
    Reading 2: Real Property investment law ex 7, 9

    Key terms 2: Buying real property ex 16

    Language notes:
    I termini "freehold" e “leasehold” sono entrambi termini di matrice feudale, che rappresentano due sistemi tipici per possedere una proprietà in UK .

    Il primo possiamo renderlo con “proprietà fondiaria assoluta/libera” Chi acquista una “freehold” proprietà diventa “freeholder” e acquisisce il massimo dei poteri possibili su quell’immobile e senza alcun limite di tempo;

    Rientrano nell'istituto di freehold:
    • Fee simple = diritto assoluto sulla proprietà 
    • fee tail = Il beneficiario ha un diritto limitato in quanto non può vendere il bene ma solo tramandarlo ai suoi eredi; la proprietà ha un vincolo inalienabile
    • life estate = il bene è di proprietà del beneficiario solo per la durata della sua vita 
    • Estate pur (pour) autre vie = simile al life estate ma il bene è di proprietà del beneficiario per la durata della vita di una terza persona. For example, if Bob is given use of the family house for as long as his mother lives, he has possession of the house pur autre vie

    Leasehold, pur traducendosi con proprietà in affitto, si riferisce alla locazione del suolo. Il termine fa riferimento ad un rapporto giuridico in base al quale un soggetto detto lessor(locatore) conferisce al lessee (locatario) un diritto esclusivo di proprietà sull’immobile per un periodo di tempo determinato, di solito per una consideration detta ground rent . Deve essere sottolineato che il lease si differenzia profondamente dalla locazione così come intesa nei sistemi civilistici, soprattutto per il fatto che il titolare del lease è titolare di un diritto di natura reale sull’immobile, dove invece il locatario dei sistemi di civil law può vantare soltanto un diritto di credito nei confronti del locatore. Quando si acquista una proprietà con leasehold bisogna prestare attenzione alle covenants, ossia le obbligazioni alle quali il lessee è tenuto ad osservare, la cui presenza rappresenta una delle particolarità più difficile da accettare per chi è abituato al sistema civilistico.


    - Dal Il sole 24 ore "A Londra la proprietà è del re"


    Act of conveyance: (atto di cessione) transfer of title in land from one person to another

    Goods and chattels: beni ed effetti
    title interest: diritto nel titolo, interest in the real property

    Lease/let/rent vb. They are used interchangeably – More common:
    To lease/let property to somebody and rent property from somebody
    Lease= n. the agreement
    Rent= n. the money to be paid
    inheritable = passed on to heirs

    References
    Buy to let investment 

    Real Estate in Italypros & cons of leasehold


    Statute of frauds
    The statute of frauds del 1677 fu la prima legge nel sistema inglese a prevedere la forma scritta ad probationem, ossia la possibilità di far valere in giudizio un contratto che è e rimane valido di per sé. Successivamente il Law of Property Act 1925 ritenne obbligatoria la forma scritta ad probationem solo per i contratti aventi per oggetto la proprietà o altri diritti reali su beni terrieri e il Law Reform (Enforcement of Contracts) Act 1954 stabilì che detta forma fosse da ritenersi necessaria per i contratti di garanzia.[read more..]Traditionally, the statute of frauds requires a writing signed by the party against whom enforcement is sought in the following circumstances:
    • Contracts in consideration of marriage. 
    • Contracts which cannot be performed within one year. 
    • Contracts for the transfer of an interest in land. Contracts by the executor of a will to pay a debt of the estate with their own money. 
    • Contracts for the sale of goods above a certain value. 
    • Contracts in which one party becomes a surety (garanzia acts as guarantor) for another party's debt or other obligation.

    Law students often remember these circumstances by the mnemonic "MYLEGS" (marriage, year, land, executor, goods, surety). It is important to note that in the United States, each State; in Canada, each province; and in Australia each State has its own variation on the statute of frauds, which may differ significantly from the traditional list. 

    Self Study



    • Key terms: pp 77-79 ex 16-23  
    • Preparare un glossario specifico per "real property law" ex: escrow (account/agreement) = deposito in garanzia
    • Listening 2  page 78 ex 19-23

    giovedì 7 aprile 2016

    Lesson_10


    Reading_3 Role of Commercial agents
    • commercial agency agreement
    • to give agents greater protection
    • under EU law
    • good and services
    • provision of services/a service
    • on behalf of/in the name of 
    • flat rate
    • paid on commissions
    • indipendent intermediaries 
    • authority to negotiate
    • provide a convenient structure
    • the principal can benefi from 
    • on commissions basis " no cure, no pay" basis
    • to build sales volume
    • temptation to circumvent 
    • come to an end
    • significant new customer base
    • to take advantage of the goodwill 

    Reading_4 Commercial agency contract

    Language Focus page 71 


    Self Study

    Unit 7: Real property law
    pp. 72-73 ex 1-3
    Instruments and people in real property law


    • lease= (contratto di locazione) o meglio diritto di godere di un immobile per un certo tempo.
    • licence = licenza d'uso
    • deed = atto (notarile)
    • tenant
    • landlord
    • heir
    • grantor = concessore
    • grantee = beneficiario
    • licencee

    lunedì 4 aprile 2016

    Lesson_9

    Commercial law covers a very wide body of law which includes: 
    • contract law, 
    • company law, 
    • tax law,
    • intellectual property law.

    Unit 6_ Reading 1_commercial law  pp. 60-61 - ex 2-4 
    Language Use: Adverb  functions pp 62-63 ex 7-8




    Self Study
    Listening 1: Profile of  a commercial lawyer page 62 ex 5-6
    Text Analysis: Letter of application for an internship pp 63-64 ex 11-13
    Reading 2- 3 - 4 -

    giovedì 31 marzo 2016

    Lesson_8

    Revision from Self Study homework:


    Setting up a company in the UK - how easy/difficult is it?
    Company act 2006 è una completa codificazione della legge sulle società in Inghilterra e Galles 
    • Reading_3: Breach of Companies Act 2006 pp54-55 ex 12-15
    • Key terms_2: Public relations page 56 ex 20
    • Text analysis: Reading a statute page 57 ex 21-23
    Listening 1 + Listening 2 suggested only
    Language Focus pag 59 ex 1-3

    EXTRA: If you like to investigate more the area of company law
    Review of Italian and UKCompany Law.  A joint study by. Consiglio Nazionale dei Dottori Commercialisti e degli Esperti Contabili.

    Self-Study
    Extra exercises_company law  page 328 ex 2; page 330 ex 2; pp 333-334 ex 1,2;page 337 ex 1; pp 339-341 ex 1, 2 Toles foundation practice page 345 ex 1, 2

    EXTRA: If you like to investigate more the area of company law
    Review of Italian and UKCompany Law.  A joint study by. Consiglio Nazionale dei Dottori Commercialisti e degli Esperti Contabili.

    lunedì 14 marzo 2016

    Lesson_7

    Key terms_1: punishments

    Reading 2: White-collar crime: insider dealing and market abuse pp 43-44 ex ex 19-21

    Key terms_2: identity theft

    Listening activities sugggested only
    Language use_3: giving advice and expressing obligations page 47 ex 31-32
    Language focus page 49 ex 1-3


    Self-study

    Introduction to Company law
    • Reading 1 pp 50-51 ex 1-3
    Partnership 
    Limited partnership with shares= società in accomandita per azioni
    Limited Partnership = società in accomandita semplice
    General Partnerhip = Società in nome collettivo

    Società di Capitali= Società di Capitali
    Limited by Shares (plc + Ltd)
    Public Company Limited by Shares (plc) = Società per azioni
    Private Company Limited by Shares (Ltd) = Società a responsabilità limitata.
    Setting up a company in the UK - how easy/difficult is it?

    It's quite difficult to find a clear correspondence with the Italian companies especially with srl ones.
    Le quote della nostra srl non sono definibili shares ma quota(s), il titolare di quote sarà definito quotaholder. In riferimento al capitale della società non potrò parlare di share capital ma di corporate capital.

    The situation improves when it comes sot plc (or Ltd) : Il capitale sociale è definito share capital (oppure, con terminologia americana, capital stock), i soci azionisti sono shareholders (o, sempre nella versione U.S.,stockholders) e così i principali organi sociali, quali il consiglio di amministrazione – board of directors – e l’assemblea degli azionisti – shareholders’ meeting.


    - board/panel of internal auditors/statutory auditors  = sort of Collegio Sindacale  
     managing director or C.E.O. (Chief Executive Officer) = amministratore delegato
    -  incorporation process: 
    • ’atto costitutivo – memorandum of association/articles of incorporation 
    • lo statuto – articles of association/bylaws 
    • iscrizione al registro delle imprese locale – registration



    Last but not least.... 
    procedure concorsuali – insolvency proceedings 
    una tassa societaria - corporation tax


    That means, when in Italian we refer to a private limited company o  private company limited by shares (Ltd.) we have to talk about:+
    - shares quote sociali o di partecipazione
    - shareholders soci 
    - share capital - capitale sociale
    mentre parlare di azioni, azionisti o capitale azionario riferendosi ad una Ltd. sarebbe un errore, per i motivi sopra esposti.

    On the other hand, when we in Italian want to refer to a  public company (Plc.) we have to talk about:
    shares azioni,
    - shareholders azionisti e
    - share capital - capitale azionario.